Civil Rights Act 1957
Eisenhower; Sets up Civil Rights Commission (6 people); doesnt work bc nobody goes
CIvil Rights Act 1960
Eisen; fed system of voter referees
Johnson; outlaw poll tax
Civil Rights Act 1964
J; outlaws discrimination in employment
Voting Rights Act 1965
J; outlaws literacy test
Civil Rights Act 1968
outlaws discrimination in real estate
if male relative was voting in 1865, then no literacy test or poll tax
Selma March 1965
Selma to Montgomery -Bloody Sunday
1964; get people to register to vote (MS -KKK bury three)
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; WEB DuBois; 1909; challenge in courts; pay for Brown v BoE
Elijah Muhammad (Poole)
led black Muslims
Malcolm X (Little)
black pwr; don't hurt yourself with drugs or alcohol; dont want anything to do with whites
CORE (Congress of Racial Equality); 1942; organize freedom rides
Southern Christian Ldrshp Conference; 1957; preach nonviolent resistance
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee founder; 1960; sitins, but then got more violent; black power
SNCC then Black Panthers
Black Panthers co-founder
Black Panthers co-founder
back to Africa in 1920s
NAACP; take to courts
Tax Reduction Act
J; 1964; cut taxes to stimulate growth
Economic Opportunities Act
J; 1964; Job Corps, VISTA (Volunteers in Service to America), Project Head Start; fight poverty, SUPER IMPORTANT
J, 1965; Medicare (old) and Medicaid (poor)
Omnibus Housing Act
J, 1965; money for low income housing
Department of Housing and Urban Development
J, 1965; to administer federal housing programs (projects)
Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Area Redevelopment Act
J, 1965; slum rebuilding mass transit, improvements for "model cities"
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
J; 1965 money for textbooks, library materials, and sp.ed.
Higher Education Act
J, 1965; scholarships and low-interest student loans
Nat'l Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities
J, 1965; to assist painters, musicians, actors, artists
Corporation for Public Broadcasting
J, 1967; fund educational TV
J, 1965; end quotas
Wilderness Preservation Act
J, 1965 9 million acres set aside for natl forests
Water Quality Act
J, 1965; demand states to clean up rivers
Clean Air Act Amendment
J, 1965; fed. standards for emission standards
Air Quality Act
J, 1965; federal air pollution guidelines
Kennedy's nickname for his domestic policy agenda. youthful optimism, the program included proposals for the Peace Corps and efforts to improve education and health care.
A federal agency in 1961 to promote voluntary service by Americans in foreign countries; promote American values and influence through productive exchanges across the world. Also, if not poor, then communism has no appeal
European Economic Committee
Free trade zone in Western Europe created by Treaty of Rome in 1957. Often referred to as the "Common Market," originally included France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. The body eventually expanded to become the European Union, which by 2005 included 27 member states.
March on Washington
1963, Massive civil rights demonstration in August 1963 in support of Kennedy-backed legislation to secure legal protections for American blacks. One of the most visually impressive manifestations of the Civil Rights Movement, the march was the occasion of Martin Luther King's famous "I Have a Dream" speech.
Program to redress historic racial and gender imbalances in jobs and education. The term grew from an executive order issued by John F. Kennedy in 1961 mandating that projects paid for with federal funds could not discriminate based on race in their hiring practices. In the late 60s, Nixon's Philadelphia Plan changed the meaning of affirmative action to require attention to certain groups, rather than protect individuals against discrimination.
Johnson's term for his domestic policy agenda. A successor to the New Deal, it aimed to extend the postwar prosperity to all people in American society by promoting civil rights and fighting poverty. Great Society programs included the War on Poverty, which expanded the Social Security system by creating Medicare and Medicaid to provide health care for the aged and the poor. Johnson also signed laws protecting consumers and empowering community organizations to combat poverty at grassroots levels.
Uprising in support of equal rights for gay people sparked by an assault by off-duty police officers at a gay bar in New York. The rebellion led to rise in activism and militancy within the gay community and furthered the sexual revolution of the late 1960s.
Mississippi freedom democratic party
Political party organized by civil rights activists to challenge Mississippi's delegation to the Democratic National Convention, who opposed the civil rights planks in the party's platform. Claiming a mandate to represent the true voice of Mississippi, where almost no black citizens could vote, the MFDP demanded to be seated at the convention but were denied by party bosses. The effort was both a setback to civil rights activism in the south and a motivation to continue to struggle for black voting rights.
Students for a democratic society
A campus-based political organization founded in 1961 by Tom Hayden that became an iconic representation of the New Left. Originally geared toward the intellectual promise of "participatory democracy," SDS emerged at the forefront of the civil rights, antipoverty, and antiwar movements during the 1960s.
brother to John, also the Attorney General under Kennedy; advised against bombing Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis; recast priorities of the FBI (resisted by J. Edgar Hoover; the "best and brightest"
robert s. mcnamara
former president of the Ford Motor Company; took over the Defense Department; business whiz; the "best and brightest"
Ngo Dinh Diem
led a corrupt, right-wing government in Saigon, Vietnam and had ruled since division in 1954; government was pro-American (b/c South Nam)
29 year old air force veteran who experienced opposition when tried to register for school in October 1962 at the University of Mississippi because colleges had been ordered to integrate.
lee harvey oswald
alleged assassin of JFK (November 22, 1963) in Dallas, TX; Oswald was killed by Jack Ruby, self-appointed avenger; mystery surrounds both deaths (conspiracy)
Democratic Senator from Missouri; emerged as contender for 1968 Presidential election
george c. wallace
Presidential candidate for the American Independent Party; former gov. of Alabama; VERY racist (wanted to put blacks "back in their place"); proposed bombing N. Vietnam to smithereens; won 13.5% popular and 46 electoral votes