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CH12

The basic components of emotion are

cognition, affect, and behavior.

Cassandra's mother told her, "You know you are in love when your heart beats fast and you experience that unique trembling feeling inside." This remark best illustrates the ________ theory of emotion.

James-Lange

According to the Cannon-Bard theory, the body's arousal is related to the sympathetic nervous system in the same way that subjective awareness of emotion is related to the

cortex.

The two-factor theory of emotion was proposed by

Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer.

Noticing that his heart was pounding and that his palms were sweaty while he was taking a difficult test, Harley concluded that he was "anxious." Noticing that his heart was pounding and that his palms were sweaty when an attractive lady asked him to dance, Harley concluded that he was "falling in love." The differing emotions experienced by Harley can best be explained by the

two-factor theory.

Which division of the nervous system calms the body after an emergency has passed?

parasympathetic

When her son fails to arrive home as expected, Elena fears he has been in an accident. Both her heart and respiration rate remain elevated until she sees him come safely through the door. Her body soon returns to normal due to the action of her ________ nervous system.

parasympathetic

For purposes of lie detection, investigators have most commonly made use of a(n)

polygraph.

Boyd, a suspect in a criminal investigation, has agreed to take a lie detector test. The machine used in this test is most likely to measure his

perspiration levels.

Chiana and her husband both want to feel and express greater warmth and affection for each other. They would be advised to spend time looking intently at one another's

eyes

People are especially good at quickly detecting facial expressions of

anger

We find it especially difficult to detect from other people's facial expressions whether they are

lying

People often overestimate the clarity of their intentions in their e-mails because they underestimate the importance of ________ in communication.

tones of voice

People from different cultures are most likely to differ with respect to

how they interpret hand gestures such as the "thumbs up" signal.

People experience a mood shift when they switch from taking short shuffling steps to taking long strides and swinging

the behavior feedback phenomenon.

Imitating another person's facial expression of emotion is most likely to facilitate

empathy

Most young children are fearful of bees, even though they have never been stung by one. This best illustrates that fear

can be learned through observation.

Research suggests that monkeys reared in the wild fear snakes because they

have observed other monkeys' fearful reactions to snakes.

A friend's misdeed is especially likely to trigger feelings of anger if the misdeed is perceived as

willfull

The term catharsis refers to emotional

release

The feel-good, do-good phenomenon refers to the fact that when people feel happy they

are more willing to help others

Subjective well-being refers to

Self- perceived happiness

Subjective well-being refers to

overestimate

Rannilt was euphoric after learning that she had been accepted by the medical school of her choice. After a few weeks, however, she is only mildly excited when she thinks about her admission to medical school. This change in her feelings can best be explained in terms of

the adaptation-level phenomenon

Haley's parents bought her a used bicycle for her birthday. She was thrilled until she learned that her best friend received a brand new bicycle for her birthday. Haley's declining satisfaction illustrates

relative deprivation.

One way for people to improve their own subjective well-being is to

overestimate how much they can accomplish.

The subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to the prevention and treatment of illness is known as

health psychology

The text defines stress as

the process by which we perceive and respond to environmental threats and challenges.

The general adaptation syndrome describes stages in the

body's response to prolonged stress.

The three successive phases of the general adaptation syndrome are

alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion.

In the three weeks after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, two-thirds of Americans responding to a University of Michigan survey reported

those who have been recently widowed, fired, or divorced are more vulnerable to disease.

Research on stressful life events indicates that

those who have been recently widowed, fired, or divorced are more vulnerable to disease.

Because of poverty, unemployment, and overcrowding, residents of impoverished areas are especially likely to experience

hypertension.

Friedman and Rosenman referred to competitive, hard-driving, impatient, and easily angered individuals as ________ personalities.

Type A

Who is the best example of a Type B personality?

Wang Lung, a relaxed, easygoing dentist

In their classic nine-year study, Friedman and Rosenman reported that, compared with Type A men, Type B men were

less susceptible to heart attacks.

Bernard is an ambitious, highly competitive corporate lawyer who recently had a heart attack. He tends to be impatient and a perfectionist, and he gets angry over little things. Research suggests that Bernard's susceptibility to heart attacks may be most closely linked to his

anger.

Despite the very stressful events in his life, Mark has been able to maintain good health. This is because of his persistent optimism and the emotional support of his family. An integrated understanding of Mark's well-being is most clearly provided by

a biopsychosocial approach.

To alleviate the stress of losing her job, Alicia enrolled in a work retraining program that led to full-time employment. Alicia's behavior best illustrates

problem-focused coping.

Elderly nursing home residents tend to decline faster and die sooner than they would otherwise if they lack

perceived control.

British civil service workers in executive positions live longer than those in clerical positions. This best illustrates the value of

perceived control.

Compared with the unmarried, married people are more likely to

live longer.

Which of the following is most likely to foster stronger immune functioning?

social support

Feeling liked and encouraged by intimate friends and family has been found to promote

stronger immune functioning.

Activities such as jogging or swimming are forms of

aerobic exercise.

Aerobic exercise has been most closely linked to a decrease in

depression.

Which form of treatment has claimed to correct imbalances of energy flow at identifiable points close to the skin?

acupuncture

The natural disappearance of a disease is called

spontaneous remission.

Whether a health care treatment is mainstream medicine or an alternative medicine depends on whether the treatment has been

scientifically validated as effective.

One possible explanation for the longer life expectancy of religiously active people is that

they receive more social support.

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