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Chapter 6: Water & Seawater Chapter 7: Air-Sea Interaction

Solid State

State of matter in which the substance has a fixed volume and shape. (Ice)

Liquid State

State of matter in which the substance has a fixed volume but no fixed shape. (Water)

Gaseous State

State of matter in which molecules move by translation and only interact through chance collisions. (Water Vapor)

Molecular Motion

Heat

Evaporation

Conversion of a liquid to a gas below the boiling point.

Condensation

Conversion of water from the vapor to the liquid state.

Heat

Energy of moving molecules.

Temperature

Direct measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules that make up a substance.

Calorie

Amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade.

Dipolar

Having two poles.

Sonar

Method by which objects may be located in the ocean.

Hydrologic Cycle

System of 7 process that moves water from one reservoir to another.

Residence Time

Amount of time a water molecule stays in a particular reservoir.

Standard Seawater

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Rule of Constancy of Composition

Concentration of a single major constituent can be measured to determine the total salinity of a given water sample.

Density

Measure of how closely packed atoms and molecules are.

Salinity

Total amount of solid material dissolved in water.

Surface Tension

Tendency for the surface of a liquid to contract owing to intermolecular bond attraction.

Kinetic Energy

Energy of motion. Increases as the mass or velocity of the object in motion increases.

Ionic Bond

Chemical bond resulting from the electrical attraction that exists between cations and anions.

Electromagnetic Spectrum

The complete range of electromagnetic waves placed in order of increasing frequency.

Boiling Point

the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas at a given pressure.

Freezing Point

the temperature at which a liquid turns into a solid.

Arctic Circle

66.5 degrees north latitude.

Antarctic Circle

66.5 degrees south latitude.

Tropic of Cancer

23.5 degrees north latitude.

Tropic of Capricorn

23.5 degrees south latitude.

Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)

Region between the tropics where the trade winds converge.

Jet Stream

narrow belt of strong winds that blows near the top of the troposphere

Trade Winds

Masses of air that move across Earth's surface from the subtropical high-pressure belts towards the equatorial low-pressure belt constitute.

Polar Easterly Winds

Cold air masses that move away from the polar regions toward lower latitudes.

Westerly Winds

winds that flow poleward as a result of earths rotation

Greenhouse Effect

Natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases.

Heat Budget

Equilibrium that exists on the average between the amaounts of heat absorbed by earth and that returned to space.

Coriolis Effect

Changes the intended path of a moving body. Causes moving objects on Earth to follow curved paths.

Halocline

Water layer with a large change in salinity with depth.

Thermocline

A layer of water in which there is a rapid change in temperature with depth.

Pycnocline

A rapid change in water density with depth.

Adiabatic Cooling

The cooling of a gas that happens when the gas expands with no way of getting more energy.

Warm Front

Contact between a warm air mass moving into an area occupied by cold air.

Cold Front

Contact between a cold air mass moving into an area occupied by warm air.

Hurricane

Tropical cyclone in North and South America.

Iceberg

A large floating mass of ice detached from a glacier.

Sea Ice

Frozen sea water.

Ice Floe

A flat mass of ice (smaller than an ice field) floating at sea.

Shelf Ice

Thick floating sheets of ice formed from edges of glaciers.

High Pressure Cell

an area of high pressure, usually has pleasant weather

Low Pressure Cell

Created when warm, less dense air rises.

Fog

A stratus cloud that forms when air is cooled to its dew point near the ground.

Sea Smoke

Dry, cold air from land moves over warmer water.

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