Odyssey Character Review

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By Leila :)

Mentor

Odysseus' friend that helps Prince Telemachus (is really athena)

Athena

Goddess of wisdom, aids Odysseus and Telemachus disguised in many different forms, the bright eyed goddess, pallas

Penelope

Wife of Odysseus, mother of Telemachus, plague by suitors

Antinous

suitor who plagues Penelope

Eurymachus

another suiter who plagues Penelope

Eurycleia

Nanny who raised Telemachus, and oaths to not tell of Telemachus' voyage to Penelope

Zeus

Ruler of all gods, and god of earth

Nestor

King of pylos, father of Pisistratus, son of Neleus

Menelaus

king of sparta, the red haired king

pisistratus

son of nestor, accompanies Telemachus on journey

Agamemnon

Leader of Ithaca in Trojan war, returns to be killed by wife and her new lover, (Aegisthus and Orestes)

Helen

queen of troy, war fought over her, wife of menelaus

Eidothea

goddess who helps menelaus question shape shifter

Proteus

goddess who traps Menelaus after trojan war

xenia

hospitality (in greek)

Hermes

the giant killer, messenger of the gods,

calypso

Odysseus' captor, holds him for 7 years, goddess

Leacothea/Ino

goddess who gives scarf of immortality to O, and helps him when Poseidon attempts to kill O

Alcinous

king of Phaeacians, on island of Scheria, husband to Arete

Arete

wife to alcinous, mother to Nausicaa, white armed queen, queen of scheria,

Nausicaa

daughter of Alcinous and arete, helps Odysseus reach Scheria, and gives him helpful instructions to get help

Laodamas

prince in Scheria who challenges Odysseus kindly in sport (Playfully)

Broadsea

wing man of Laodamas, taunts Odysseus to accept challenge

Demodocus

blind bard of Scheria, resembles Homer

Lotus eaters

people who are "drugged" and have no sense of time or reality, because they eat lotuses

Polyphemus

Cyclops blinded by Odysseus, son of Poseidon

Poseidon

father of Polythemus, does not like Odysseus, (Greek mythology) the god of the sea and earthquakes in ancient mythology

Eurylochus

shipmate of O, does first scout on Circe's island

Elpenor

drunken shipmate of O, on Circe's island who forgets he sleeps on a roof and plummets to his death by breaking his neck

Aeolus

King of Aeolia, can control winds

Antiphates

king of Lauestygonia Cannibalistic Giants

Moly

magical root hermes gives O, to protect him from Circe's poisons

Circe

a witch-goddess, who turns O's men into swines, is sexist toward men, and hosts O and his men for a year on her island

Tiresias

blind prophet on House of Death (island place)

Clymenestra

wife of Agamemnon, kills him for lover

Pylos

King is Nestor, first stop for Telemachus

Laertes

Odysseus' father, husband to Anticlea

Cronus

God of universe, Zeus' father

Sychlla

twelve footed 6 headed monster who lives on a tall crag

Argos

odysseus' dog

Eumaeus

loyal swine herder

polybus

dad of eurymachus
CHECK

achilles

son of peleus and thetis, grandson of aeacus and commander of the Myrmidons, Achaean allies at troy

Alexander the Great

son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world

Anticlea

mother of odysseus, wife of laertes, daughter of autolycus

Archaic Age

800 BC - 480 BC
check

Argos

Odysseus' dog

Aristotle

Pupil of Plato, questioned nature of world, human belief, thought and knowledge, inventedbasic scientific method steps, opened school in athens called lyceum

Athens

the great city of Athena, a city

Bronze Age

3000bc to 1150 bc

Charybdis

monster in the form of a giant whirlpool, across from Scylla

Cleisthenes

An aristocrat, created a council of 500 and helped from Athenian democracy 500bc, broke power on nobility(wealth)

Darius I

king of Persia who expanded the empire and invaded Greece but was defeated at the Battle of Marathon (550-486 BC)

Dark Age/Doric Age

1150bc to 750 bc

Delian League

alliance of greek citystates against persia invasion

Democritus

presented theory of atoms, philosopher
460-370 BC

Elpenor

shipmate of odysseus, when drunk fell off roof and died

Epic

a long narrative poem telling of a hero's deeds

epic hero

the main character or protagonist in an epic that heroically larger than life, often the source and subject of a legend or a national hero=odysseus

freewill

done of your own accord

fate

an event (or a course of events) that will inevitably happen in the future

Golden Age of Greece

477 to 431 of athens, 5th century BC, advances in science, math philosiphy, art, theatre, architecture, politics,

hamartia

the character flaw or error of a tragic hero that leads to his downfall

Hector

(Greek mythology) a mythical Trojan who was killed by Achilles during the Trojan War, Prince of Troy; Killed by Achilles

Helios

sun god

Hellenistic Culture

Greek culture blended with Egyptian, Persian and Indian ideas, as a result of Alexander the Great's Empire.
CHECK

Herodotus

the ancient Greek known as the father of history

his accounts of the wars between the Greeks and Persians are the first known examples of historical writing (425-485 BC)

1st work of history

Homer

author of book

hubris

excessive pride or self-confidence

humanism

a philosophy in which interests and values of human beings are of primary importance

Irus

Younger beggar who comes in and challenges Odysseus to a boxing match. He is beaten with one punch.
true name is Arnaeus, ithacan beggar

ithaca

odysseus town, ionian island

justice

the quality of being just or fair

Laestrygonians

giants of laestygonia, legendary clan of giant cannibals

Lotus Eaters

people who eat Lotus plant and which makes them slow paced and spacy, people who feed Odysseus's men lotus plants to make them forget Ithaca

Minoans

earliest Greek civilization that had developed on the island of Crete by 2000 B.C. conquered by mycnaeans

Natural Philosophy

the science of matter and energy and their interactions

Nestor

King of Pylos, father to Pisistratus, oldest of Achean chiefs

Nobody

nickname Odysseus uses to trick Polyphemus

Odysseus

epic hero, father of Telemachus, husband of Penelope, warrior at troy who's idea ended and wom war

Odyssey

a long wandering and eventful journey

Odyssey Themese

CHECK NOTES

Ogygia

Calypso's island

Oracle of Delphi

someone who speaks in tongues as greek god and prophecizes for greeks, , (Greek mythology) the oracle at Delphi where a priestess supposedly delivered messages from Apollo to those who sought advice

Paris

suitor, Son of the king of Troy (Priam), would lead to the death of the Trojans, prince of Troy, abducts Helen from Sparta, begins and is the cause of the war

Parthenon

the main temple of the goddess Athena

Peloponnesian Wars

fought between sparta and athens
1st=truce from plague and no spartan entry for attack,
Sparta won in end athens surrendered

Pericles

introduced direct democracy, fought &led at battle of Salams (persian war)used $$ from delian league to increase athens appearance power and prosperty, strengthen navy made everyone equal to participate in law

Persian Wars

Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.E.) through Darius's punitive expedition that failed at Marathon. Chronicled by Herodotus. (131)

Greece won

Philip I

father of Alexander the Great and Greek king of Macedonia

Philoetius

cowherd loyal to Odysseus

Plato

philospher, student of socrates, wrote the Republic, introduced vision of ideal society, opened school called Academy, open for 900 yrs, writings influenced philosophical thought in europe for 1500 yrs

polis

greek city state

pride

a feeling of self-respect and personal worth

Protagorus

a sophist philosopher, quiestioned unexamined beliefs and ideas about justice and other traditional value, questioned existence of greek gods

revenge

action taken in return for an injury or offense

Scheria

The island of the Phaeacians where King Alcinous gives Odysseus assistance to make the last sail to Ithaca

Scylla

(Greek mythology) a sea nymph transformed into a sea monster who lived on one side of a narrow strait
drowned and devoured sailors who tried to escape Charybdis (a whirlpool) on the other side of the strait

had 6 heads-monster

Sirens

sea nymphs whose beautiful and mysterious music lures sailors to steer their ships toward dangerous rocks

Socrates

critic of sohpists, believed absolute standards did ecist for truth and justice, challeneged greeks to question themselves and moral character, died from drinking hemlock (poison) when accused in jury

Sparta

greek city state that is focused on strong military and power, discouraged arts

suitors

men who live in Odysseus' home in Ithaca and wish to marry Penelope

Telemachus

son of penelope and Odysseus who is prince of Ithaca

Thales

a presocratic Greek philosopher and astronomer (who predicted an eclipse in 585 BC) who was said by Aristotle to be the founder of physical science

first natural philosopher

Themistocles

Anthenian leader who won persian wars until ostracized (exiled) to wander persia , Athenian statesman who persuaded Athens to build a navy and then led it to victory over the Persians (527-460 BC)

Theoclymenus

prophet who predicts Odysseus' arrival home, , son of Polypheides, was an exiled prophet from Argos; killing one of his relatives. He fled to Pylos and sought refuge aboard the ship of Telemachus

Tieresius

lives in Hades, blind prophet who tells Odysseus how to get home and how to get Poseidon's acceptance

Trojan Horse

hollow wooden horse filled with Greek men that won Trojan war- thought of by Odysseus

Troy

where trojan war was fought, , city where Paris takes Helen

Ulysses

another name for odysseus (roman name)

Underworld

world of the dead, Hades

Xerxes

son of Darius; became Persian king. He vowed revenge on the Athenians. He invaded Greece with 180,000 troops in 480 B.C.

xenia

hospitality

zeus

(Greek mythology) the supreme god of ancient Greek mythology, father of Athena

Aeolus

god of the winds in ancient mythology

Thales

1st natural philospher

democritus

atoms theory

protagoras

sohhists, questioned gods

Aeschylus

dramatist who wrote tragedies,

sohpocles

tragedies oedipus the king and antigone

euripides

drama, tragedies, medea, powerful woman

aristophanes

comedy writer from 1st great comides

Thucydides

greatest historian, reocurrence of politics and events

pericles

direct democracy, salamis of persian wars, glorified athens

hippocrates

medicince

socrates

critic of sophists, question moral character

plato

student of socrates, ideal society

aristotle

pupilk of plato, nature world human beliefe and though and knowlwnedfe

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