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This phylogenetic tree indicates that mammals are most closely related to _____.

reptiles
( The branching pattern of the phylogenetic tree clearly indicates that mammal are most closely related to reptiles.)

According to this phylogenetic tree, the animals most closely related to reptiles and mammals are _____.

amphibians
( The branching pattern of the phylogenetic tree makes it clear that amphibians are most closely related to reptiles and mammals.)

Which one of these chordate groups lacks a post-anal tail and a notochord as adults?

tunicates
( While larval tunicates have a post-anal tail and a notochord, adult tunicates do not.)

The common ancestor of all these chordate groups EXCEPT the _____ probably had paired appendages.

lampreys
( Lampreys lack paired appendages.)

Which of these is the only chordate group that has hair?

mammals
( Hair is one of the defining characteristics of mammals.)

Which of these primate groups is most closely related to hominids?

apes
( Apes, such as chimpanzees, are the primates most closely related to humans.)

_____ are the oldest known primate group.

Prosimians
( Prosimian fossils date back to the end of the dinosaurs.)

The primates that spend the most time walking upright are the _____.

hominids
( Humans are hominids.)

Which of these anthropoid groups consists of primates who are mostly tree dwellers and whose forelimbs and hind limbs are about equal in length?

monkeys
( In addition to these characteristics many monkeys have tails.)

Which of these primate groups lives in trees in Central and South America and have nostrils that are wide open and far apart?

New World monkeys
( You might recall that the Western Hemisphere is also referred to as the New World.)

Humans are _______.

Homo sapien
( Humans are classified as Homo sapiens.)

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