Chap 24 (advanced)

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Blockage of the lymphatic vessels draining a region of the body is most likely to cause-

insensible water loss
cutaneous transpiration
negative water balance
positive water balance
edema

edema

Which of the following conditions is most likely to lead to suffocation?

hypercalcemia
hypocalcemia
hyperkalemia
hypokalemia
acidosis

hypocalcemia

A base is any chemical that-

releases OH-
binds OH-
lowers the pH
binds H+
releases H+

binds H+

The blood plasma is about ___ % of the total body water.

8%

Atrial natriuretic factor is secreted in response to-

hyponatremia
hypernatremia
aldosterone
hypotension
hypertension

hypertension

Antidiuretic hormone-

-increases water and sodium reabsorption
-increases water reabsorption but not sodium
-increases urine output but not urine concentration
-increases the volume and concentration of urine
-reduces the glomerular filtration rate

increases water reabsorption but not sodium

Which of the following cations is most concentrated in the intracellular fluid?

K+
Na+
NH4+
Fe2+
Ca2+

K+

Which of the following conditions is likely to produce the highest daily output of sodium in the urine?

hypertension
a high level of aldosterone
a low level of atrial natriuetic factor
a high level of estrogen
a low level of progesterone

hypertension

The sense of thirst is satiated by all of the following mechanisms, but the one with the longest-lasting effect is-

-cooling of the mouth
-stretching of the stomach by ingested water
-a drop in blood osmolarity
-moistening of the mouth
-increased salvation

a drop in blood osmolarity

When the hypothalamic osmoreceptors detect a rise in blood osmolarity...

-the kidneys secrete renin
-the kidneys secrete aldosterone
-the adrenal cortex secretes aldosterone
-the posterior pituitary releases ADH
the heart secretes ANF

the posterior pituitary releases ADH

Aldosterone receptors are found on cells of-

the adrenal cortex
the adrenal medulla
the posterior pituitary
the proximal convoluted tubule
the distal convoluted tubule

the distal convoluted tubule

When the renal tubules secrete hydrogen ions into the tubular fluid, they ___ at the same time.

-secrete potassium
-secrete sodium
-reabsorb potassium
reabsorb sodium
-secrete chloride

reabsorb sodium

The pH of the intracellular fluid is buffered mainly by-

protein

A deficiency of potassium ions in the blood is called-

hypokalemia

The pH of systemic atrial blood is normally-

5.6
6.7
7.0
7.4
8.6

7.4

People who have lost a lot of blood often feel intensely thirsty. This is because-

- angiotensin II is produced and stimulates the thirst center
-the osmolarity of the remaining blood is elevated
-the hypothalamic osmoreceptors respond to falling blood pressure
-ADH is released and stimulates the thirst center
-the loss of plasma electrolytes stimulates the thirst center

angiotensin II is produced and stimulates the thirst center

The bicarbonate buffer system would not work very well in the human body if not for the action of the respiratory system, which-

-supplies the buffer system with CO2
-supplies the buffer system with O2
-expels HCO3 produced my the buffer system
-expels H+ produced my the buffer system
-expels CO2 produced my the buffer system

expels CO2 produced my the buffer system

The limiting pH is a value below which-

-human life cannot be maintained
-hydrogen ions cannot be secreted into the tubular fluid
-hydrogen ions cannot be reabsorbed from the tubular fluid
-the bicarbonate buffer system no longer works
-hydrogen ions must be buffered by ammonia

hydrogen ions cannot be secreted into the tubular fluid

The lymphatic system helps maintain fluid balance by-

-returning fluid from the interstitial compartment to the bloodstream
-transferring excess water from the bloodstream to the tissue fluid
-compensating for hypovolemia by releasing stored fluid to the tissues
-compensating for hypovolemia by absorbing and storing excess fluid
-maintaining equilibrium between fluid intake and output

returning fluid from the interstitial compartment to the bloodstream

Aldosterone has which of the following effects?

-increases Na+ and K+ reabsorption
-reduces Na+ and K+ reabsorption
-causes the urine to be more dilute
-reduces Na+ reabsorption and increases K+ reabsorption
-increases Na+ reabsorption and reduces K+ reabsorption

increases Na+ reabsorption and reduces K+ reabsorption

Increasing the K+ concentration of the extracellular fluid (ECF) will-

-cause more K+ to diffuse out of the cells into the ECF
-usually not affect the intracellular K+ concentration
-raise cell membrane potentials and make cells more excitable
-lower cell membrane potentials and make cells more excitable
-lower cell membrane potentials and make cells less excitable

raise cell membrane potentials and make cells more excitable

Because of the carbonic anhydrase on the brush borders of the kidney tubules,

-the kidneys eliminate almost as much CO2 as the lungs do
-the urine is normally free of bicarbonate ions
-the urine contains a high concentration of bicarbonate ions
-bicarbonate ions are rapidly reabsorbed by the kidney tubules
- the pH of the urine is normally slightly basic

the urine is normally free of bicarbonate ions

An antiport system on the brush borders of the kidney tubules-

-transports bicarbonate from the tubular fluid back into the tubule cells
-transports H+ in both directions across the epithelium
-transports CO2 from the blood into the tubular fluid
-exchanges H+ for Na+
-exchanges K+ for Na+

exchanges H+ for Na+

If a person's urine has an unusually high concentration of ammonium chloride, we would suspect that the person has-

-Addison's disease
-acidosis
-alkalosis
-hyperchloremia
-an abnormally high rate of amino acid catabolism

acidosis

At a normal pH, the extracellular fluid is about-

-a 20:1 ratio of bicarbonate ions to carbonic acid
- a 20:1 ratio of carbonic acid to bicarbonate ions
-a 1:1 ratio of hydrogen ions to bicarbonate ions
-a 20:1 ratio of hydrogen ions to hydroxyl ions
-a 20:1 ratio of hydroxyl ions to hydrogen ions

a 20:1 ratio of bicarbonate ions to carbonic acid

A lung disease that interferes with pulmonary gas exchange can be expected to lead to-

-metabolic acidosis
-metabolic alkalosis
-compensated alkalosis
-respiratory acidosis
-respiratory alkalosis

respiratory acidosis

The volume of water in a cell is governed mainly by the amount of __ in the cytoplasm.

K+

Which of the following is most likely to produce metabolic acidosis?

-emphysema
-diabetes mellitus
-diabetes insipidus
-Addison's disease
-tuberculosis

diabetes mellitus

Urine normally has a pH of approximately-

4.5
5.5
7.4
8.2
9.1

5.5

If you could trace the hydrogen ions removed from the blood and excreted in the urine, most of them would be part of the ___ of the urine.

-NaH2PO4
-NH4Cl
-H2O
-HCO3
-urea

H2O

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