ch 23

Created by lahski 

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The respiratory epithelium of the conducting airways consists of
moist cuboidal epithelium.
surfactant cells.
simple squamous epithelium.
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.
ciliated squamous epithelium

d

The larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles all make up the
internal respiratory tract.
respiratory mucosa.
alveoli of the respiratory tract.
lower respiratory tract.
upper respiratory tract.

d

Tuberculosis results from an infection by the bacterium
Clostridium difficile.
Staphylococcus aureus.
Vancomycin-resistant streptococcus.
Tuberculin plumonae.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

e

The respiratory mucosa consists of
stratified squamous cells.
epithelium and underlying layer of areolar tissue.
dense irregular connective.
fibrocartilage.
All of the answers are correct.

b

Air entering the body is filtered, warmed, and humidified by the
bronchioles.
lower respiratory tract.
upper respiratory tract.
lungs.
alveoli.

c

Harry suffers from cystic fibrosis and has severe breathing difficulties. His problems result from
lack of neural control of respiration.
thick secretions that are difficult to transport.
genetic mutation in cilia production.
excessive mucus secretions in the trachea.
laryngospasm.

b

The nasopharynx is divided from the rest of the pharynx by the
cribriform plate.
internal nares.
pharyngeal septum.
hard palate.
soft palate

e

The openings to the nostrils are the
external nares.
nasal apertures.
internal nares.
conchae.
vestibules.

a

The portion of the pharynx that receives both air and food is the
laryngopharynx.
oropharynx.
internal pharynx.
aeropharynx.
nasopharynx

b

The common passageway shared by the respiratory and digestive systems is the
pharynx.
larynx.
trachea.
vestibule.
glottis

a

The auditory tubes open into the
larynx.
laryngopharynx.
nasal cavity.
oropharynx.
nasopharynx.

e

The vocal folds are located within the
trachea.
bronchi.
larynx.
oropharynx.
nasopharynx.

c

The placement of a tube directly into the trachea to bypass the larynx is termed a(n)
tunnelization.
catheterization.
intubation.
trachectomy.
tracheostomy.

e

Air passing through the glottis vibrates the vocal folds and produces
ululation.
whistling.
phonation.
articulation.
speech.

c

Tension on the vocal cords is regulated by the
extrinsic ligaments.
contraction of laryngeal muscles.
extrinsic and intrinsic ligaments.
movement of the arytenoid cartilages and contraction of laryngeal muscles.
movement of the arytenoid cartilages.

d

The airway that connects the larynx to the bronchial tree is the
alveolar duct.
bronchiole.
bronchus.
trachea.
laryngopharynx.

d

The C shape of the tracheal cartilages is important because
it permits the trachea to pinch shut prior to sneezing.
large masses of food can pass through the esophagus during swallowing.
it facilitates turning of the head.
the bronchi are also C-shaped.
large masses of air can pass through the trachea.

b

The actual sites of gas exchange within the lungs are
bronchioles.
pleural spaces.
terminal bronchioles.
alveoli.
interlobular septa.

d

__________ has a greater partial pressure in the pulmonary capillaries than in the alveoli, so it diffuses into the __________.
O2; alveoli
O2; pulmonary cavities
CO2; alveoli
CO2; pulmonary capillaries

c

Which gas law explains why there is as much CO2 exchanged between the alveoli and blood as there is O2 exchanged, despite the fact that the partial pressure difference is so much smaller for CO2?
Henry's law
Boyle's law
Dalton's law
Correct

a

How would the partial pressures of O2 and CO2 change in an exercising muscle?
The partial pressure of O2 would increase, and the partial pressure of CO2 would decrease.
The partial pressure of O2 would decrease, and the partial pressure of CO2 would increase

b

Which way would O2 and CO2 diffuse during internal respiration?
Hint D.1
Hint not displayed

ANSWER:
O2 would diffuse into the cells, and CO2 would diffuse into the systemic capillaries.
O2 would diffuse into the systemic capillaries, and CO2 would diffuse into the cells.
Both O2 and CO2 would diffuse into the systemic capillaries.

a

Internal and external respiration depends on several factors. Which of the following is NOT an important factor in gas exchange?
ANSWER:
available surface area
the molecular weight of the gas
rate of blood flow through the tissue
partial pressure of the gases

b

External respiration involves the
ANSWER:
utilization of oxygen by tissues to support metabolism.
binding of oxygen by hemoglobin.
diffusion of gases between the alveoli and the circulating blood.
exchange of dissolved gases between the blood and the interstitial fluid.
movement of air into and out of the lungs.

c

The unit of measurement for pressure preferred by many respiratory therapists is
ANSWER:
mm Hg.
psi.
centigrade.
cm H2O.
torr.

e

Which direction does carbon dioxide move during internal respiration?
ANSWER:
from the blood into the tissue cells
from the tissue cells into the blood
from the blood into the lungs
from the lungs into the blood
from the lungs into the atmosphere

b

Boyle's law states that the pressure of a gas is:
ANSWER:
inversely proportional to temperature.
directly proportional to the volume of its container.
directly proportional to temperature.
always higher in the atmosphere than in the lungs.
inversely proportional to volume of its container.

e

Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is
ANSWER:
greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.
greater than intraalveolar pressure.
less than intrapulmonic pressure.
less than the pressure in the atmosphere.
equal to the pressure in the atmosphere.

a

During quiet breathing,
ANSWER:
inspiration involves muscular contractions and expiration is passive.
only the internal intercostal muscles contract.
inspiration and expiration involve muscular contractions.
inspiration is passive and expiration involves muscular contractions.
inspiration and expiration are both passive.

a

If the volume of the lungs increases, what happens to the air pressure inside the lungs?
ANSWER:
increases
increases and possibly damages the lungs
remains constant
decreases
increases twice the amount of the increase in volume

d

During exercise, which of the following contract for active exhalation:
ANSWER:
rectus abdominis and diaphragm muscles
diaphragm and internal intercostal muscles
rectus abdominis and internal intercostal muscles
diaphragm and external intercostal muscles
pectoralis major and serratus anterior muscles

c

When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract,
ANSWER:
expiration occurs.
the volume of the thorax increases.
the lungs shrink.
the volume of the thorax decreases.
the volume of the lungs decreases.

b

Boyle's Law of Gases states that
ANSWER:
the pressure and volume of a gas are equal.
the total gas pressure is equal to the sum of the partial pressures.
if the volume goes up, the pressure goes down.
the concentration of dissolved gas is proportional to its partial pressure.
as the temperature goes up, the pressure goes up.

c

Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is
ANSWER:
less than the pressure in the atmosphere.
equal to the pressure in the atmosphere.
less than intrapulmonic pressure.
greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.
greater than intraalveolar pressure.

d

Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as
ANSWER:
solute dissolved in the plasma.
carbaminohemoglobin.
carbonic acid.
solute dissolved in the cytoplasm of red blood cells.
bicarbonate ions.

e

Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?
ANSWER:
decreased ph
decreased temperature
decreased amounts of DPG
increased tissue
All of the answers are correct.

a

Carbonic anhydrase
ANSWER:
can increase the amount of bicarbonate ion in plasma.
is in RBCs.
is an enzyme.
can decrease the amount of bicarbonate ion in plasma.
All of the answers are correct.

e

The most important chemical regulator of respiration is
ANSWER:
oxygen.
carbon dioxide.
hemoglobin.
bicarbonate ion.
sodium ion.

b

The term hypercapnia refers to
ANSWER:
labored breathing.
elevated Poz.
the cessation of breathing.
an increase in pH.
elevated Pco2

e

The apneustic centers of the pons
ANSWER:
inhibit the pneumotaxic and inspiratory centers.
monitor blood gas levels.
alter chemoreceptor sensitivity.
generate the gasp reflex.
provide stimulation to the inspiratory center.

e

Breathing that involves active inspiratory and expiratory movements is called
ANSWER:
hyperpnea.
eupnea.
costal breathing.
shallow breathing.
diaphragmatic breathing

a

The Hering-Breuer reflex
ANSWER:
functions to increase ventilation with changes in blood pressure.
is an important aspect of normal, quiet breathing.
alters pulmonary ventilation when the changes.
protects the lungs from damage due to overinflation.
alters pulmonary ventilation when the changes.

d

The pneumotaxic center of the pons
ANSWER:
sets the at-rest respiratory pattern.
stimulates the dorsal respiratory group.
suppresses the expiratory center in the medulla.
prolongs inspiration.
modifies the rate and depth of breathing.

e

Damage to the phrenic nerves would
ANSWER:
result in greater pressure differences between the lungs and the outside air.
increase respiratory rate.
increase the tidal volume.
force reliance on costal breathing.
have little effect on ventilation.

d

Stimulation of the apneustic center would result in
ANSWER:
decreased vital capacity.
more intense inhalation.
increased respiratory rate.
a shorter respiratory cycle.
less activity in the DRG center.

b

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