menstrual cycle in which ovulation fails to occur
scraping away of the surface cells of the uterus
pelvic pain during menstruation due to excessive prostaglandin F production. Can be treated with oral contraceptives, heat packs, massage, exercise, relaxation techniques or prostaglandin inhibitors.
change in cell size, shape and organisation
not in the normal location
excessive growth of dark facial and body hair in women
Human epidermal growth factor
body cells become resistant to the effects of insulin
removal of uterus
removal of growth in breast and some surrounding tissue
whole breast removal
heavy menstrual bleeding
Modified radical mastecomy
removal of whole breast and lymph node
embryonic structure that develops into the brain and spinal cord
woman who has never given birth
removal of a small piece of tissue for lab examination
when radioactive seeds are implanted in the prostate to emit small amounts of radiation directly to the tumor
sperm or oocyte
fluid build up in scrotal sac
abnormal increase in the number of cells
enlargment/overgrowth of tissue
spread of cancer through out the body
surgical removal of testes
surgery to move undescended testes
surgical removal of prostate gland
ultrasound imaging of the prostate gland and surrounding tissue
surgical ligation of the ductus vas deferens
Semeniferous tubules of testes
site of sperm production
failure of testes to descend into scrotum, this is important as if left undescended sterility may be affected due to raised testicular temp. Does not usually effect secondary sex characteristics
Prostate specific antigen (test to measure possible malignancy of prostate)PSA level >4ng/ml indicates the need for further tests to check for prostate cancer.
Benign prostate hyperplasia, this is when the prostate gland is enlarged in a symetrical fashion and is not malignant. Occurs in 80% of men over 80.
Lower urinary tract symptoms such as dysuria, nocturia and chronic urine retention. May also increase the risk of kidney and bladder interactions.
Digital rectal examination to feel for prostate shape and size
Most common cause of cancer in males and fifth highest killer. On the rise due to ageing population, diet and environmental issues.
Prostate cancer clinical features
asymetrical growth, dysuria, polyuria, weak stream and UTI's
commonly mestastis are the liver, lungs, brain and bones.
5 alpha reductase inhibitor used to inhibit the production of 5 alpha reductase enzyme. That converts testosterone into DHT, which can stimulate excessive prostate growth.
Alpha adrenogenic blockers that lower blood pressure and decrease the flow of blood to muscle tissue. This may relax the tissues around the ureter and ease urine flow.
Prostate cancer treatments
5 alpha reductase inhibitor, Alpha adrenogenic blockers, brachytherapy, chemotherapy and prostatectomy
Dihydrotestosterone which a potent male androgen responsible for secondary sex characteristics and in mature males is an androgen for prostate and hair follicles
steroid hormone that is responsible for sex characteristics
most common form of cancer in males aged 15-35, commonly manifests as a painless swelling in the scrotum. Treatment can be by chemotherapy, radiotherapy and orchiectomy. Has 95% cure rate and a 10% rate of secondary cancer at time of diagnosis. CXR are often used to chek for metastasis in the lungs.
Leydig cells in testes
interstital cells that produce testosterone
sertoli cells in testes
usually in the 7 month of pregnancy
What is the reason for the testes to descend into the scrotal sac
to lower the temperature by apprx. 2 deg for fertile spermatogenesis
effects upto 1/3 of males over 50
can be caused by diabetes, vascular disease(hypertension,artheriosclerosis), anti-hypertensive medications and pyschological disorders
drug used to combat erectile dysfunction, it works by relaxing the muscles in the penis allowing the blood to flow into the corpus cavernosum making the penis swell
What synthetic hormones does the combination pill normally contain
Oestrogen & progesterone
leiomyomas, which are benign tumors of the uterus that may be treated with hormones or in severe cases a hysterectomy
How can the incidence of breast cancer be diminshed
pregnancies before the age of 30. No pregnancies increase the risk.
Regular pap smears
reduce the risk of cervical cancer as they detect early changes to the epithelial cells (dysplasia) that are a marker for precancerous lesions.
Where does fertillisation occur
First menstrual period (12-13yrs)
cessation of menstruation (50yrs)
What does ectopic pregnancy mean
pregnancy in the wrong place eg. fallopian tubes
The ovarian cycle is regulated by
the anterior pituitary gland releasing FSH and LH
The menstrual cycle is stimulated by
Oestrogen and progesterone
promotes secondary sex characteristics in females, important for breast growth and the thickening of the endometrium. Elevated levels will limit the production of FSH hence why they it used in a contraceptive pill.
prepares the endometrium for implantation a sudden decrease causes the lining to shed (menstruation) Progesterone inhibits LH hence why it used in contraception pills and IUD's
when the fallopian tubes are sealed (tied)
Intra uterine device that is used for mechanical contraception and releases progesterone for hormonal contraception.
Morning after pill
contains high levels of progesterone and oestrogen (sometimes will only contain progesterone), designed to prevent release of egg cell, may prevent implantation.
lack of menstruation can be caused by excessive exercise, dramatic weight loss, pregnancy and lactation
inhibit the production of prostaglandin which causes vasoconstriction and smooth muscle contraction. Asprin is a common inhibitor.
Polycystic ovary syndrome
caused by obesity, insulin resistance and increased androgen levels
Polycystic ovary symptoms
anovulation, hirsutism, acne, obesity increased risk of CVD and type 2 diabetes and enlarged ovaries with many cysts. Teatments decrease body mass to below 25, oral contraception pill, fertility assistance and ovarian surgery
when the endometrial cells appear outside the uterus. Causes pelvic pain, dysmenorrhoea, dysuria, dyspareunia and can lead to adhesions
commonly is squamous cell carcinoma
risk factors HPV virus, frequent multiple partner intercourse, early age of intercourse, male partner who has mutliple sexual partners
Human papillomavirus can be vaccinated against with gardasil. Is spread by sexual intercourse
Vaccine that immunises against HPV and can reduce the rate of Cervical cancer dramatically
Cervical cancer treatment
Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, Hysterectomy and curretage
removal of tissue via scraping and scooping with a curette
commonly adenocarcinomas of the lobules and ducts
oestrogen receptor positive
Increased Breast cancer risk factors
age 75% occur in women >50
familial history inherited brca1 & 2 genes account for 3%
radiation and chemical carcinogens
previous breast conditions
late or no pregnancy
lifestyle factors eg alcohol,smoking etc
cancer of the epithelial tissue of glandular tissue
Clinical features of breast cancers
painless lump on breast
dimpling of breast skin
palpable nodes in axilla
Breast cancer diagnosis
MRI for young women in high risk groups
Breast Cancer Treatment
Hormone therapy to reduce oestrogen (tamoxifen) or epithelial growth (herceptin)
stimulation of ovaries to produce one egg (oocyte)
Intrauterine insemination, sperm is introduced directly to the uterus
In vitro fertilisation, female is stimuliated to produce many eggs that are then combined with sperm in a dish
Intracytoplasmicsperm injection, when one sperm is injected into one egg
when the muscles surrounding the uterus weaken allowing the uterus to fall. symptoms include heavy feeling and discomfort in pelvis, polyuria. Treatments include oestrogen pessary, lifestyle changes or surgery for extreme cases
ductus vas defrens
long tubes that carry sperm from epididyms to the urethra (can store sperm)
site of sperm maturation and storage, carries the sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the ductus vas defrens
EXOCRINE GLAND AT THE BASE OF THE MALE URINARY BLADDER. THE PROSTATE SECRETES THE FLUID PART OF SEMEN INTO THE URETHRA DURING EJACULATION
sperm formation takes apprx. 70 days.
needs the temp to be apprx. 2 deg lower than the body
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the foetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
used to treat angina and may lead to hypotension
potentially fatal interaction with viagra due to profound hypertension (myocardial infarction)
occurs when part of the intestine protrudes downward through into the groin region and commonly into the scrotal sac in males. Caused by weakness in the lower abdominal muscles.
prostate cancer stages
Oral contraceptive containing oestrogen and progesterone inhibits tertiary ovarian follicle growth (oestrogen inhibits LH + FSH, progesterone makes cervical mucus thicker). mimics being pregnant
contains only progesterone