A trading center which once existed near the current location of St. Louis and was inhabited by 40,000 native Americans in 1200 A.D.
Prince Henry (of Portugal)
This man dedicated much of his life to the promotion of maritime exploration and helped Portugal become an early force in navigation. Explored South along West Africa and around Cape of Good Hope to India.
This man was one of the first conquistadors who led armies into South America. He managed to conquer Tenochtitlan after a failed first attempt and with the aid of smallpox he killed many of the Aztecs that lived there.
A conquistador like Cortes, who conquered the Incas in Peru and help to begin more advances in South America. Besides miners, farmers, priests, friars and missionaries went to South America after it was conquered by the conquistadores.
The first Spanish fort north of Mexico. It was a small military outpost located in Florida and founded in 1565. It was followed by colonizing in the Southwest. The first permanent European settlement in North America.
A economic concept that believes that for one person or nation to grow rich it must be at the expense of another. This led to Europeans trading greatly throughout the fifteen and sixteen hundreds. It also led to colonization, nations looked for new products to trade from areas they could control because there was a need of resources and markets to increase money flowing to Parent Nation.
The Protestant Reformation
A reformation beginning in 1517 which was led by Luther and evolved when Luther challenged the Roman Catholic Church.
A theologian who started the belief that God selected who would be saved and who would be condemned to damnation before their belief. Followers believed that those who existed wickedly or uselessly were those chosen for damnation and those who were successful and diligent were those who would be saved. This belief led many Europeans to try to lead virtuous and productive lives.
The English Reformation
After a disagreement between the Pope and King Henry VIII(Henry wanted divorce from Catherine (Spain) since she had not given him a male heir-Pope refused so Henry put himself as head of Anglicans).
People who wanted to further reform the Church of England and clamored for reforms that would purify the church. Many left England due to economic reasons, also.
Radical Puritans who began their existence in the 16th century after England formed its own church. They determined to worship in their own independent congregation, despite English law stating that they must do otherwise. They did not want to leave the Church of England but simply change the Anglican forms of worship and reform church leadership. Eventually Puritans were antagonized and they sought new places for refuge. Puritans- left for Holland then to Plymouth.
The first French settlement in America which was established in 1608. Its population grew slowly but they were able to establish relationships with Native Americans. French Jesuit missionaries helped to establish those relationships.
Coureurs de bois
French fur traders and trappers who went far into the wilderness of Quebec and developed extensive trade. The traders formed partnerships with the Indians and lived among them and some even married the Indian women. The fur trade they established helped begin the creation of French agricultural estates along the St. Lawrence River and the creation of military and trade centers at Quebec and Montreal.
A English explorer who was employed by the Dutch to find land for them. He sailed along the river now known as the Hudson River and helped the Dutch to claim the area now known as New York.
The first permanent English settlement in the new world which was established in Virginia in 1607.
The Spanish Armada
One of the largest military fleets in the history of warfare which was sent to attack England in 1588. The smaller English fleet was able to defeat the armada by using its ease of maneuverability and ended Spain's domination of the Atlantic Ocean and made England the power.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert
An early English pioneer of Colonization who was able to secure a patent to colonize in the New World. He led an expedition to Newfoundland but was lost at sea.
Sir Walter Raleigh
The half brother of Sir Humphrey Gilbert who sent men to explore land along the North American coast and named Virginia in honor of Queen Elizabeth (the virgin queen).
Portugal Navigation Schools
These schools attracted Christopher Columbus and Magellan, two prominent explorers.
Established in 1587. Called the Lost Colony. It was financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, and its leader in the New World was John White. All the settlers disappeared, and historians still don't know what became of them.
The principal town of the Dutch settlement in North America. It occupied the area now none as New York.
Rather than mix with those already living in Ireland the English created their own separate societies based upon those who emigrated from England and treated the Irish harshly.
The Church of England
The name of the Church created when England separated from honoring the Roman Catholic Church to starting its own church. Many believed that the English reformation was not enough and wanted more changes in the church.
Gained a following from Europeans, was excommunicated by the pope and started his own protestant church.
These men conquered South America for Spain and begun the immigration of miners, farmers, priests, friars and missionaries into South America.