psych midterm3

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how many sperm do males ejaculate?

200 million

Dr. Matsuko's major research interest is the long-term effects of child-rearing practices on the psychological adjustment of offspring. It is most likely that Dr. Matsuko is a(n) ________ psychologist.

developmental

The non-reproductive sexual characteristics (e.g., female breasts, male facial hair) are known as:

secondary sex characteristics

According to Lawrence Kohlberg, the majority of children younger than age 9 have a preconventional _____.

morality

The process of developing a sense of _____ during adolescence was highlighted by Erik Erikson's psychosocial development theory.

identity

What marks the beginning of adolescence?

psychical signs of sexual maturation

To most people, the sexual abuse of a very young child is so emotionally repulsive that they immediately recognize it as immoral. This best illustrates that moral judgments may possibly reflect:

gut level intuition

The period of adolescence is lengthening in industrialized cultures such as in Europe, the United States, and Australia. Adolescents are taking more time to finish their education and establish careers. The average age for a first marriage in the United States has increased more than 4 years since 1960, to _______ for men and _______ for women.

27 25

Frontal lobe development during adolescence also includes the growth of _____, the fatty tissue around axons that speeds transmission.

myelin

David is 13-years-old and is telling his mother that she should not drive too fast and make a complete stop at the light in order to avoid getting a ticket. Lawrence Kohlberg would suggest that this illustrates _____ morality.

conventional

Jenny has a job, a cat named Jake, and 31 candles on her birthday cake. She is worried about finding the "right man." She frequently spends nights alone and knows she is not getting any younger. According to Erik Erikson, Jenny is in the stage of development called _____ vs. isolation.

intimacy

Mike is 68-years-old and is sitting in his recliner reflecting on the mistakes he made in his life as well as the dreams that went unfulfilled. According to Erik Erikson, Mike is in the stage of development called:

integrity vs despair

Jarrud thinks he should obey his teachers only if they are carefully watching him. Lawrence Kohlberg would suggest that Jarrud demonstrates a(n) _____ morality.

preconventional

Mark believes that choosing to violate government laws is morally justifiable if it is done to protect the lives of innocent people. Lawrence Kohlberg would suggest that this illustrates _____ morality.

postconventional

The process that happens at the neural level in adolescence that is similar to when we were infants is called _____.

pruning

Scott just celebrated his 25th anniversary at the company. He felt that his gold watch was just a meaningless trinket and was glad that he balanced his work with family life. According to Erik Erikson, Scott is in the stage of development called generativity
vs. _____.

stagnation

Men do not experience anything equivalent to _____; that is, they do not experience a cessation in fertility or a sharp drop in hormones.

menopause

In Western Europe, about _____ percent of men over 65 remain in the workforce, as do 16 percent in the United States.

10

Those who emphasize _____ over stability would suggest that the first two years of life provide a poor basis for predicting a person's eventual traits.

change

Reggie is in his mid-fifties. Reggie can expect that he will experience a:

grdual decrease in testosterone

A person's ability to reason speedily and abstractly (e.g., solving novel logic problems) decreases slowly to about age 75, then more rapidly, especially after age 85. This type of ability is also known as _____ intelligence.

fluid

Terminally ill and bereaved people go through predictable stages of grief such as _____ before anger.

denial

oncerning the stability and change developmental issue our _____ is more predictable than our social attitudes.

temperament

Once diagnosed with Alzheimer's, Ruth Ann asked the doctor what to expect. He told her that there would be a progressive decline of memory and thinking, and Alzheimer's has a course of (lasts) about:

5 to 20 years

The National Institute of Mental Health is conducting a study on older adults (50 to 75 years of age) regarding memory and response time in relation to timed tasks. They are bringing in all age groups at once to compare the differences. This is a(n) _____ study.

cross sectional

According to Erik Erikson, older adults can most effectively cope with the prospect of their own death if they have achieved a sense of:

integrity

As adults age, they show the greatest declines in:

fluid intelligence and in the memory capacities needed to recall recently presented information.

r. Greco is conducting a study with military veterans from the Vietnam and Gulf Wars. He plans to evaluate them every year for 10 years to see if those with PTSD have a more pronounced decline in mental abilities and overall memory. This is a(n) _____ study.

longitudinal

_____ is an organism's response to a stimulus that includes a mixture of physiological, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience.

emotion

In a positive mood, a person will experience increased activity in her left _____.

frontal lobe 98

When people are stimulated by an exciting soccer match, their excitement can fuel and intensify anger. This effect is known as the _____.

spillover effect

A neural pathway from the frontal lobe carries _____ to the _____ which stimulates pleasure and positive emotions.

dopamine;nucleus accubens

Highly emotional people are intense partly because of their interpretations. They may _____ events as being somehow directed at them, and they may _____ their experiences by blowing single incidents out of proportion.

personalize; generalize

You look down while sitting at the top of the Ferris wheel. You immediately feel your heart start to pound and you simultaneously experience fear. The Theory that best explains this emotional response is the _____ theory.

cannon-bard

After John's stroke, his family noticed he was depressed and had difficulty showing positive emotions, which was contrary to the easy-going, positive characteristics he formerly displayed. According to Harmon-Jones (2002) the stroke was probably located in the _____.

left frontal lobe

_____ conceded that our brains process and react to vast amounts of information without our conscious awareness.

richard lazarus

As she was riding her bicycle down a hill, Wendy hit a large rock and started to lose her balance. She managed to come to a stop without falling. Once she was stopped, she noticed her heart was racing and she was shaking. After that, she realized she was frightened. The _____ theory of emotion best explains this sequence of events.

james lange

Evidence that emotion follows physiological arousal would be most consistent with the _____. Evidence that emotion follows the placement of a cognitive label on physiological arousal would be most consistent with the _____.

James-Lange theory; two-factor theory

The sympathetic nervous system is to _____ as the parasympathetic nervous system is to _____.

arousal;calming

If people who are aroused by watching rock videos are then insulted, their feelings of anger will be greater than those of people who have been similarly provoked but were not previously aroused. This is best explained by Schacter and Singer's _____ theory.

two-factor

The arousal that lingers after an intense argument may intensify sexual passion. This best illustrates:

spillover effect

You look down while sitting at the top of the Ferris wheel. You immediately feel your heart start to pound. You are confused by this response until you remember your last experience on a Ferris wheel. During that experience, the wind started to blow, the seats began to rock, and you thought you were going to die. You realize your heart is pounding because you are afraid. Which of the following theories best explains this sequence of events?

2factor theory

The _____ is an approach to lie detection, which assesses a suspect's physiological response to crime-scene details known only to police investigators.

guilty knowledge test

Julie is competing in a basketball free throw contest. She is likely to perform _____ if her physiological arousal during the performance is _____.

well;moderate

According to Ambady et al. (1995) introverted people were much better at reading the emotions being expressed than _____ people.

extroverted

Research has shown that women, more than men, are more likely to discern whether or not a couple is romantically involved or not. This is because women are more skilled at reading _____ emotional cues.

nonverbal

In his 1872 book, The Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals, Darwin stated "He who gives way to violent gestures will increase his rage." This quote best fits with which the _____ theory.

facial feedback

Your friend's father has just passed away. You don't just say you are sorry for the loss, but rather you tell your friend that you truly feel the pain that she is going through. You really understand her grief and both of you are crying together as you can actually feel the loss in your heart as well. This is an example of _____.

empathy

____ was the first to confirm that six basic facial expressions are culturally universal.

ekman

Mark is embarrassed by the fact that he displays emotion when watching a film with sad or sentimental scenes. Mark could bite a pencil with his teeth to help control his natural _____.

mimicry

_____ found that in over 125 studies of sensitivity to nonverbal cues, women generally surpass men at reading people's emotional cues.

judith hall

display rule is an example of which of the following influences of emotion?

socio-cultural

By exposing different parts of emotion-laden faces, researchers found that we detect anger mostly from the _____ and happiness mostly from the _____.

eyes;mouth

Feigned smiles are initiated more abruptly and last for a _____ time than genuine smiles.

longer

Your instructor asks you to explain emotion from biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels. Which of the following explanations represents all three levels?

physiological arousal, cognitive labeling, cultural explanations

Research shows that having close friendships and satisfying marriages serve as a predictor to _____.

happiness

Mick never seems to be satisfied with his achievements. But he is not depressed. He does celebrate those achievements, but his achievements become normal after some time, and he moves on to the next big thing. This is best explained in terms of the:

adaptation-level phenomenon

Michael is an Olympic swimmer who believes that competition gives him an edge. His _____ has positive valence.

arousal

Emotions are often hard to describe, but one way of clarifying them is to place them along two dimensions. Thus, people can describe where an emotion falls along two dimensions: (low versus high) _____ and (pleasant versus unpleasant) valence.

arousal

Loren is studying emotion in her psychology class, and is surprised to find out that in individualistic cultures high self-esteem is related to happiness; in communal cultures _____ matters more.

socail acceptance

A celebrity actress experiences ever-increasing levels of acclaim following each successful movie role. Yet with each success, she experiences only a temporary surge of subjective well-being. This is best explained in terms of the:

adaptation level theory

The fight-or-flight response is associated with the release of _____ into the bloodstream.

epinephrine

Cancer-producing substances such as smoking, radioactive materials, and in some ways, stress, are known as:

carcinogens

In times of stress the outer part of the adrenal glands secrete glucocorticoid stress hormones such as:

cortisol

___ cells are cells that pursue and destroy diseased cells in the body.

natural killer

A woman, alone in a house, ignores the creaking sounds she hears and experiences no stress. Another woman might hear the same sounds, suspect an intruder, and thus become alarmed. These different reactions illustrate the importance of:

stress appraisal

The second phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is characterized by:

resistance

Gregory Miller and Ekin Blackwell (2006) report that chronic stress leads to persistent inflammation, which heightens the risk of both depression and _____.

clogged arteries

Maya owes the credit card company $20,000, her adjustable rate mortgage has just gone up, and she has been out of work for 3 months. Her husband of 15 years came home today to tell her he was having an affair and wants a divorce. With that news, she collapsed and had to be taken to the emergency room. According to Selye, she is in which stage of the General Adaptation syndrome?

phase 3, in a state of exhaustion

Jerome has a Type B personality and Francis has a Type A personality. Francis is more likely to experience _____ than is Jerome.

artherosclerosis

Attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the _____ or the way we interact with that situation is known as problem-focused coping.

stressor

A sedentary life style, work-related stress, and pessimistic explanatory styles contribute to today's high rate of _____.

depression

Biofield therapies, such as qi gong, Reiki, and therapeutic touch, are intended to affect _____ that purportedly surround and penetrate the human body.

energy fields

Jim has been taking medication and going to psychotherapy to treat his depressive symptoms. You would also recommend _____.

exercise

Hakeem is a fourth year medical student. He has the tendency to downplay every successful exam and every little set back is evidence to him that he will never graduate even though he has had several successful evaluations. Hakeem's has a(n) _____ explanatory style.

pessimistic

Psychologists would most likely use biofeedback to help clients reduce _____.

tension headaches or stess

In China acupuncture therapy is believed to work to reduce pain by
correcting imbalances of _____ flow at points on the skin.

energy

The subfield of _____ medicine that employs plant and plant products from folk medicine traditions for pharmacological use is called herbal medicine.

alternative

People tend to use emotion-focused, rather than _____, coping strategies when they believe they cannot change a stressful situation.

problem-focused

___ is a present day medicine made from natural substances found in botanical life.

penicillin

Perceived loss of control is associated with _____ epinephrine levels and _____ lymphocyte levels.

raised;lowered

Tamika has had troubling neck pain that was caused by an automobile accident. Her doctor has not been able to successfully treat the pain. The person she has been seeing is treating her pain by using her hands to press and pull on muscles and turn and pull her neck. This person is operating in the manipulative and body-based methods domain of _____.

alternative medicine

When she let the residents choose their own dinner-time, as well as what they wanted to eat, she realized there were far fewer health problems and deaths. To what might she attribute this?

percieved control

The _____ perspective emphasizes the role of repressed childhood conflicts in personality disorders.

psychoanalytic

According to Carl Jung, humans have a reservoir of images that are derived from our universal experiences. This is known as our:

collective unconscious

According to terror-management theory, people enhance their self-esteem in order to defend themselves from fear of their own _____.

death

Sigmund Freud emphasized the importance of _____.

unconscious processes

Children who have witnessed a parent's murder report memories that most clearly challenge Freud's concept of _____.

repression

The Society for Personality Assessment commends its responsible use even though many critics doubt the validity of the projective test called the _____.

rorschach inkblot

Many researchers believe the _____ does not involve passions and repressive censoring as Freud once believed.

unconscious

Bruce has been smoking since he was 15-years-old. His doctor tells him that he needs to quit for his health. Bruce tells the doctor, "Look, smoking is the only bad thing I do, and besides, you have to die of something." This best illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as _____.

rationalization

In 1921, Hermann Rorschach introduced what has become the most widely used _____ test.

projective

Bryce often acts overly confident and daring. Few people realize he is actually riddled with unconscious insecurity and self-doubt. Bryce best illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as _____.

reaction formation

Jorge was reprimanded for an accounting error by his boss in front of his co-workers. Jorge gets home from his job and yells at his wife for not having dinner ready. His wife then yells at the children for leaving their toys all over the house. This best illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as _____.

displacement

Freud suggested that adults with a passive and submissive personality, marked by a childlike dependence, demonstrate signs of a(n) _____.

oral fixation

According to your text, in one survey _____ percent of university students believed that painful experiences commonly get pushed out of awareness and into the unconscious.

88

Critics of Freud doubt that conscience and gender identity form as the child resolves the Oedipus complex at age:

5 or 6

Jaydon does not realize that his alcohol abuse and family neglect is leading to the destruction of both his family and his career. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Jaydon is showing signs of a weak _____.

ego

According to Freud, the _____ is largely conscious and acts as a mediator.

ego

Henry Murray introduced this projective test.

TAT

_____ is an attitude of total acceptance toward another person. This attitude nurtures growth in others.

Unconditional positive regard

The MMPI was originally developed to identify _____.

emotional disorders

Our acceptance of stock, positive descriptions of ourselves from psychics and from palm readers is known as:

Barnum effect

The _____ includes a "lie scale" that can assess the extent to which a person is "faking" to make a good impression.

MMPI

Garrick is a calm, self-satisfied man who appears to be secure. Which of the following Big Five personality factors would best describe his personality?

neuroticism

The humanistic perspective fails to appreciate the human capacity for _____.

evil

Starke Hathaway is to _____ as Alfred Binet is to _____.

personality;intelligence

In a psychology class debate on the trait perspective, you need to take the opposing view and rebut its positive aspects. In order to do so, you cite one of the criticisms of the trait perspective, namely that people do not act with _____ consistency and behavior varies from one situation to the next.

predictable

Humanistic psychology emphasizes the importance of a positive _____.

self-concept

Eli has always been an extravert. There is some evidence that people like Eli seek stimulation because their normal brain arousal is relatively low. For example, extraverts exhibit less activity in a frontal lobe area involved in _____.

behavior inhibition

The Big Five personality factors are reported to have a heritability of approximately _____ percent for each dimension.

50

The humanistic perspective has been criticized for promoting an excessive degree of _____.

individualism

Our acceptance of stock, positive descriptions of ourselves from psychics and from palm readers is known as the _____ effect.

Barnum

All of Ernest's basic physiological and safety needs have been met, and he feels a solid sense of belonging and of being loved. According to Maslow, this suggests that he will next seek to satisfy his need for:

self-esteem

Personality inventories are to _____ as projective tests are to subjective scoring.

objective scoring

Kate comes home with three "A's" and two "B's" to which her mother replies, "Is that the best you could do?" and walks away. Rogers refers to this attitude as the opposite of:

unconditional + regard

_____ psychology is the scientific study of optimal human functioning. This field aims to discover and promote the strengths that allow people and communities to thrive.

+

_____ proposed the social-cognitive perspective.

Bandura

If the self-serving bias is evident in the way an athlete explains her success or failure, she might:

blame her failure on bad officiating.

When a student perceives himself as less likely to develop drinking problems or drop out of school than his average classmate, he or she may be illustrating _____.

unrealistic optimism

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