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memory

the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information

flashbulb memory

a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

encoding

the processing of information into the memory system; for example, by extracting meaning

storage

the retention of encoded information over time

retrieval

the process of getting information out of memory storage

sensory memory

the immediate, initial recording of sensory infomatin in the emory system

short-term memory

activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten

long-term memory

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system

automatic processing

unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meaning

effortful processing

encoding that requires attention and consious effort

rehearsal

the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for sorage

spacing effect

tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

serial position effect

our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list

visual encoding

the encoding of picture images

acoustic encoding

the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words

semanic encoding

the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words

imagery

mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding

mnemonics

memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

chunking

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

iconic memory

a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second

echoic memory

a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds

long-term potentiation (LTP)

an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation; believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory

amnesia

the loss of memory

implicit memory

retention independent of conscious recollection; also called procedural memory

explicit memory

memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and 'declare'; also called declarative memory

hippocampus

a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage

recall

a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test

recognition

a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test

relearning

a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time

priming

the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

déjà vu

that eerie sense that 'I've experienced this before', cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience

mood-congruent memory

the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood

proactive interference

the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

retroactive interference

the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information

repression

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories

misinformation effect

incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event

source amnesia

attributing to the wrong source an event that we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined; along with the misinformation effect, it is at the heart of many false memories; also called source misattribution

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