← Apologia Biology Module 13-A Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All vertebrae Segments of bone or some other hard substance that are arranged into a backbone. notochord A rod of tough, flexible material that runs the length of a creature's body, providing the majority of its support. endoskeleton A skeleton on the inside of a creature's body, typically composed of bone or cartilage. bone marrow A soft tissue inside the bone that produces blood cells. periosteum A dense membrane that covers both compact and spongy bone tissue which contains blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the cells in the bones. axial skeleton The portion of the skeleton that supports and protects the head, neck, and trunk. Includes the skull, spinal column, sternum and ribs appendicular skeleton The portion of the skeleton that attaches to the axial skeleton and has the limbs attached to it. closed circulatory system A circulatory system in which the oxygen-carrying blood cells never leave the blood vessels. arteries Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. capillaries Tiny, thin-walled blood vessels that allow the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and the cells of the body. veins Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart. olfactory lobes The lobes of the brain that receive signals from the receptors in the nose. cerebrum The lobes of the brain that integrate sensory information and coordinate the creature's response to that information. optic lobes The lobes of the brain that receive signals from the receptors in the eyes. cerebellum The lobe that controls involuntary actions and refines muscle movement. medulla oblongata The lobes that coordinate vital functions, such as those of the circulatory and respiratory systems, and transport signals from the brain to the spinal cord. internal fertilization The process by which the male places sperm inside the female's body, where the eggs are fertilized. external fertilization The process by which the female lays eggs and the male fertilizes them once they are outside of the female. oviparous development Development that occurs in an egg that is hatched outside the female's body. ovoviviparous development Development that occurs in an egg that is hatched inside the female's body. viviparous development Development that occurs inside the female, allowing the offspring to gain nutrients and vital substances from the mother through a placenta. anadromous A life cycle in which creatures are hatched in fresh water, migrate to salt water as adults, and then go back to fresh water in order to reproduce.