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group

two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with an influence on another and perceive one another as 'us'

social facilitation

1) the tendency of people to perform simple or well-learned tasks better when others are present 2) the strengthening of dominant (prevalent, likely) responses in the presence of others

co-actors

co-participants working individually on a noncompetitive activity

evaluation apprehension

concern for how others are evaluating us

social loafing

the tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable

free riders

people who benefit from the group but give little in return

deindividuation

loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms, good or bad.

group polarization

group-produced enhancement of members' preexisting tendencies; a strengthening of the members' average tendency, not a split within the group

social comparison

evaluating one's opinions and abilities by comparing oneself with others

pluralistic ignorance

a false impression of what most other people are thinking or feeling, or how they are responding

groupthink

the mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence-seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action

leadership

the process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group

task leadership

leadership that organizes work, sets standards, and focuses on goals

social leadership

leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support

transformational leadership

leadership that, enabled by a leader's vision and inspiration, exerts significant influence

sucker effect

the person carrying the weight of group when their are free riders

process loss

a degradation or loss of group decision making (2 types: group think and group polarization)

Risk factors for groupthink

cohesive group, group isolation, directive leader, and pressure to conform

signs and symptoms of groupthink

illusion of invulnerability, stereotyping outsiders, self censorship, mindguards, illusion of unanimity

consequences of groupthink

incomplete review of alternatives, failure to examine risks, poor information search, lack of contingency plans, poor decisions

how to avoid group think

impartial leader, seek opinions, use of subgroups, voting procedures

prejudice

a preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individual members

stereotype

a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people. are sometimes overgeneralized, inaccurate, and resistant to new information

discrimination

unjustified negative behavior toward a group or its members

racism

1) an individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given race or 2) institutional practices (even if not motivated by prejudice) that subordinate people of a given race

sexism

1) and individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given sex or 2) institutional practices (even if not motivated by prejudice) that subordinate people of a given sex

social dominance

a motivation to have one's group dominate others social group

ethnocentric

believing in the superiority of one's own think and cultural group, and having a corresponding disdain for all other groups

authoritarian personality

a personality that is disposed to favor obedience to authority and intolerance of outgrips and those lower in status

realistic group conflict theory

the theory that prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources

social identity

the 'we' aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to 'who am i?' that comes from our group memberships

ingroup

'us' - a group of people who share a sense of belonging, a feeling of common identity

outgroup

'them' - a group that people perceive as distinctively different from or apart from their ingroup

ingroup bias

the tendency to favor one's own group

terror management

according to 'terror management theory' people's self-protective emotional and cognitive responses (including adhering more strongly to their cultural worldviews and prejudices) when confronted with reminders of their mortailty

outgroup homogeneity effect

perception of outgrip members as more similar to one another than are in-group members. thus, 'they are alike; we are diverse'

own-race bias

the tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces of their own race

stigma consciousness

a person's expectation of being victimized by prejudice of discrimination

group-serving bias

explaining away outgrip members' positive behaviors; also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions (while excusing such behavior from one's own group)

just-world phenomenon

the tendency of people to believe that the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get

subtyping

accommodating individuals who deviate from one's stereotype by thinking of them as 'exceptions to the rule'

subgrouping

accommodating individuals who deviate from one's stereotype by forming a new stereotype about this subset of the group

stereotype threat

a disruptive concern, when facing a negative stereotype, that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype. unlike self-fulfilling prophecies that hammer one's reputation into one's reputation into one's self-concept, stereotype threat situations have immediate effects

aggression

physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone

hostile aggression

aggression driven by anger and performed as an end in itself

instrumental aggression

aggression that is a means to some other end (spanking)

instinctive behavior

an innate, unlearned behavior pattern exhibited by all members of a species

frustration-aggression theory

the theory that frustration triggers a readiness to agress

frustration

the blocking of goal-directed behavior

displacement

the redirection of aggression to a target other than the source of the frustration. generally, the new target is a safer or more socially acceptable target

relative deprivation

the perception that one is less well-off than others with whom one compares oneself

social learning theory

the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished

catharsis

emotional release. the catharsis view of aggression is that aggressive drive is reduced when one 'releases' aggressive energy, either by acting aggressively or by fantasizing aggression

prosocial

positive, constructive, helpful social behavior; the opposite of antisocial behavior

social scripts

culturally provided mental instructions for how to act in various situations

pain-attack response

when people experience pain they lash out (Gary)

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