occurs when a stimulus is placed within a person's relevant environment and comes within range of their sensory receptor nerves.
occurs when the stimulus activates one or more sensory receptor nerves, and the resulting sensations go to the brain for processing.
the assignment of meaning to sensations. It is related to how we comprehend and make sense of incoming information based on characteristics of the stimulus, the individual, and the situation.
It is a series of activities by which stimuli are perceived, transformed into information, and stored.
Stimulus factors used to attract attention
Size-larger stimuli are more likely to be noticed than smaller ones
Intensity- (loudness, brightness, length)
Color and Movement
Contrast and Expectations
occurs when consumers are confronted with so much information that they cannot or will not attend to all of it. TV advertising information appears to reduce attention and in print advertising it appears to attract attention.
Several aspects of interpretation:
Perceptual relativity—a relative process rather than absolute. Often difficult for people to make interpretations in the absence of some reference point.
tends to be subjective and open to a host of psychological biases. Marketers must be concerned with psychological meaning as it is the subjective experience that drives consumer behavior.
semantic and psychological meaning
Marketers increasingly tap into linguistic characteristics of words to create brand names with inherent meaning right from start. "morpheme."
An inference goes beyond what is directly stated or presented. Consumers use available date and their own ideas to draw conclusions about information that is not provided.
consumers tend to infer that more heavily advertised brands are higher quality
Warranties are another signal, with longer warranties generally signaling higher quality
involves presenting the stimulus in such a way that it is perceived as the focal object to be attended to and all other stimuli are perceived as the background.
cross promotion retail strategy
Whereby signage in one area of the store promotes complementary products in another. Ex: Milk signage in the cookie aisle, can be also effective
existing brand exends to a new category with the same name such as Levi Strauss putting its Levi name on a line of upscale men's suits.