Anatomy - Chapters 13 and 14

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throat

pharynx

windpipe

trachae

voice box

larynx

opening to the larynx

glottis

the trachae branches into these tubes

main bronchi

tube posterior to the trachae

esophagus

smallest conducting pasageways in the lungs

bronchioles

air sacs within the lungs

alveoli

what is a modification which is designed to increase surface area for absorption within the small intestine

microvilli, villi, circular folds

the accessory digestive organ that produces enzymes that break down all food groups is the

pancreas

what are the subdivisions of the large intestine

cecum, appendix, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum

amylase is an enzyme that is only able to digest

starch

the number of permanent teeth within a full set of adult teeth is

32

the anterior chisel-shaped teeth that are adapted for cutting are called

incisors

the organ responsible for drying out indigestible food residue through water absorption and the elimination of feces

large intestine

what serves as a passageway for both food and air

pharynx and larynx

what routes air and food into their proper channels and plays an important role in speech

larynx

the "guardian of the airways" that prevents food from entering the superior opening of the larynx is the what

epiglottis

what is the air-blood barrier, where gases are exchanged

respiratory membrane

sudden inspirations resulting from spasms of the diaphragm are what?

hiccups

the general term for inadequate oxygen delivery to body tissues regardless of the cause is called what

hypoxia

labored breathing often referred to as "air hunger" is called what

dyspnea

the C-shaped rings of cartilage that reinforce the trachae are made of what cartilage

hyaline

the lungs of the fetus fill with what late in pregnancy

fluid

another name for the alimentary canal is the what

GI tract

the rhythmic wavelike propelling mechanism of the alimentary canal is called what

peristalsis

what is simply known as chewing

mastication

the first portion of the small intestine is the what

duodenum

the voluntary phase of swallowing is called what phase

buccal

what are projections of the mucosa of the small intestine

villi

bile enters the duodenum of the small intestine through what duct

bile duct

the ascending colon is found on which side of the abdominal cavity

right

sugars and starched are classified as what

carbohydrates

watery stool that results when food residue is rushed through the large intestine before sufficient water has been reabsorbed

diarrhea

large wrinkle-like folds in the stomach lining, present when the stomach is empty, that allow for expansion when the stomach is filling are called

rugae

what is not absorbed by the large intestine

nutrients

the energy value of foods, commonly counted by dieters, is measured in units called

calories

ATP is produced in greatest quantity during

electron transport chain

what does the liver do?

detoxify, degrade hormones, produce cholesterol, process nutrients

voluntary process of placing food into the mouth is referred to as

ingest

the process of eliminating indigestible residues from the GI tract is called

defecation

amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after a normal tidal expiration

expiratory reserve volume

normal quiet breathing which moves approximately 500 mL of air per breath

tidal volume

air that enters the respiratory tract and remains within the conducting zone passageways

dead space volume

amount of air that can be inhaled forcibly over the tidal volume

inspiratory reserve volume

total amount of exchangeable air

vital capacity

air that remains in the lungs even after the most strenuous expiration

residual volume

sum total of tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume and expiratory reserve volume

vital capacity

hypoventilation dramatically increases carbonic acid concentration and involves

extremely slow breathing

hyperventilation leads to

brief periods of apnea, cyanosis, dizziness, fainting

what are features of COPD

dsypnea becomes progressively more severe, frequent pulmonary infections are common, most COPD victims are hypoxic, most patients have a history of smoking

emphysema results in what

enlarged alveoli, lung fibrosis, expanded barrel chest, decreased lung elasticity

the smallest conducting passageways of the lungs are called

bronchioles

the abbreviation IRDS stands for

infant respiratory distress syndrome

what is cystic fibrosis

the most common lethal genetic disease in the US causing over secretion of thick mucus that clogs the respiratory passage which is fatal

what are currently the most damaging and disabling respiratory diseases in the US

lung cancer and COPD

what are organs of the alimentary canal

mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus

which one of the following represents the correct order through which food passes in the alimentary canal

mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus

primary absorption of water

large intestine

site where starch digestion begins

mouth

site where protein digestion begins

stomach

tube through which food is propelled but no digestion takes place

esophagus

site where pancreatic enzymes and bile enter the alimentary canal

duodenum

site of vitamin K synthesis by bacteria

large intestine

site of initiation of defecation reflex

rectum

the flap of elastic cartilage that protects food from entering the larynx when swallowing is the

epiglottis

cilia of the trachae that beat continually propel contaminated mucus

toward the throat to be coughed up or swallowed

when oxygen enters the respiratory system, what is the next structure to which it travels immediately upon leaving the trachea

main bronchi

what are the respiratory zones

alveoli sac, alveoli duct, respiratory bronchioles

the walls of the alveoli are composed largely of

simple squamous

exchange of both oxygen and carbon dioxide through the resporatory membrane occurs by

simple diffusion

the lipid molecule critical to lung function that coats the gas-exposed alveolar surfaces and prevents lung collapse by lowering surface tension of the water film on the alveolar sac is

surfactant

air moving in and out of the lungs

pulmonary ventilation

what are the conducting passageways of the respiratory system

nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles

what are the functions of the respiratory conducting passageways

allow air to reach the lungs, purify air, humidify, warm incoming air

what are the parts of the nose

external nares, nostrils, nasal cavity, nasal septum

what is the role of mucus in the nasal cavity

trap incoming bacteria and other foreign debris

the nasal cavity is separated from the oral cavity by

both the hard and soft palate

what is a function of the paranasal sinuses

lighten the skull, act as a resonance chamber for speech, produce mucus, help to moisten the air

air from the nasal cavity enters the superior portion of the pharynx called the

nasopharynx

tonsils that lie at the base of the tongue are

lingual tonsils

following the removal of the larynx, a person would be unable to

speak

the opening between the vocal cords is called the

glottis

what happens during inspiration

Contraction of the diaphragm muscle and external intercostals muscles helps increase the size of the thoracic cavity, decrease gas pressure causes air to be sucked in increasing the volume until it equalizes

the gas exchange that occurs between blood and tissue cells at systemic capillaries is called

internal respiration

an emotionally induced response during which air movement is similar to crying is

laughing

a very deep inspiration that ventilate all the alveoli

yawn

the respiratory movement representing the total amount of exchangeable air

vital capacity

the amount of air remaining in the lungs even after the greatest possible expiration effort is

residual volume

the bluish cast that results from inadequate oxygenation of the skin and mucosa is called

cyanosis

what is a factor influencing respiratory rate and depth

physical exercise, volition, emotional factors, levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide

cessation of breathing is called

apnea

the structure that forms the anterior roof of the mouth is the

hard palate

the fold of the mucous membrane that secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth and limits its posterior movement is called

lingual frenulum

protein digestion begins in the

stomach

the release of food from the stomach into the small intestine is regulated by

pyloric sphincter

the small intestine extends from the

pyloric sphincter to the illocecal valve

which one of the following is the middle section of the small intestine

jejunum

enzymes and bile are carried by the pancreatic duct and bile duct into the

duodenum

the primary function of the small intestine is

absorption of nutrients

bile is produced by the ____ but stored in the ____

liver, gallbladder

buildup of bile within the liver leading to bile pigments circulating through the body could cause tissues to turn yellow and a condition called

jaundice

the sequence of steps by which large food molecules are broken down into their respective building blocks by catalytic enzymes within hydrolysis reactions is called

chemical digestion

what carbohydrate can't human digestive system break down into simple sugars

cellulose

proteins are digested to their building blocks which are called

amino acids

transport of digested end products from the lumen of the GI tract into the bloodstream or lymphatic fluids is called

absorption

the first nutrient to be chemically digested is

starch

the opening of the large intestine is called the

anus

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