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In life -threatening starvation the kidneys synthesize glucose by

deaminating amino acids

This byproduct of protein catabolism constitutes approximately one-half of all nitrogenous waste

urea

Which organ system does not excrete waste

the cardiovascular system

Which is not a function of the kidneys

they release waste into the bloodstream

Which of the following is not an organ of the urinary system

collecting duct

A patient enters a hospital after a motorcycle accident. He complains of mid-back pain. X-rays reveal both rib and pelvic fractures. His emergency room examination includes urinalysis. Which of the following findings from the urinalysis would most likely suggest trauma to the kidneys from the accident but not the urinary bladder

albuminuria

The innermost connective tissue layer protecting the kidney and assistancing in staving off infection is known as

the fibrous capsule

A single lobe of a kidney is compromised of

one pyramid and the overlying cortex

A renal pyramid voids urine into

the minor calyx

Which of these correctly traces blood flow from the renal artery into the renal cortex

segmental a. - interlobular a. - arcuate a. - interlobular a.

The transition from an afferent arteriole to an efferent arteriole occurs in the

glomerulus

The average person has approximately ___ nephrons per kidney

1.2 million

Which of these correctly traces blood flow from the renal cortex to the renal vein

interlobular v. - arcuate v. - interlobar v. - renal v.

Blood plasma is filtered in

the renal corpuscle

Which of these form the inner layer of the glomerular capsule and wrap around the capillaries of the glomerulus

podocytes

All of the following are comprised of cuboidal epithelium with the exception of

the thin segment of the nephron loop

Which are primarily responsible for maintaining the salinity gradient of the renal medulla

juxtamedullary nephrons

In the nephron, the fluid that immediately precedes urine is known as

tubular fluid

Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by

the renal corpuscle

In a healthy kidney, very little ___ is filtered by the glomerulus

protein

Which of the following would reduce the glomerular filtration rate

vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole

The mechanism of stabilizing the GFR based on the tendency of smooth muscle to contract when stretched is known as what

the myogenic mechanism

In response to a drop in overall blood pressure _____ stimulates constriction of the glomerular inlet and even greater constriction of the outlet

angiotensin II

Assuming all other values are normal, calculate the net filtration pressure in a patient with a drop in capsular hydrostatic pressure to 8 mmHg

20 mm Hg out

Renin hydrolyzes angiotensinogen released from the _____ to for angiotensin I

liver

Because of the great deal of active transport that occurs here the ____ of all nephrons collectively account for about 6% of one's daily resting ATP and caloric consumption

proximal convoluted tubules

Proximal convoluted tubules are responsible for reabsorbing all of the following except

hydrogen ions

Total saturation of protein transporters for a given solute in the renal tubules would result in

appearance of that solute in the urine

Which of the following is a direct result of antidiuretic hormone

decreased urine volume

Aldosterone acts on

the distal convoluted tubule

Atrial natriuretic peptide reduces blood volume and pressure by all of the following means except

preventing sodium loss in the urine

Hypocalcemia stimulates

secretion of parathyroid hormone

Which renal structure is responsible for producing hypertonic urine by reabsorbing water while allowing metabolic waste and NaCl to pass through

collecting duct

The urine is most likely to be hypotonic when

the body's water volume is high

Which of the following does not contribute to water conservation

diuretics

The countercurrent multiplier recaptures ____ and is based on fluid flowing in _____ direction in two adjacent tubules

sodium; the opposite

The overall purpose of the countercurrent exchanges system is

to supply salt and urea to the renal medulla

Which of these induces renin secretion, constricts afferent arterioles, and reduces GFR and urine volume

norepinephrine

Normal urine from a healthy person can be expected to contain all of the following except

glucose

What is the term for the pigment responsible for the color of urine

urochrome

The minimum daily output of urine to meet the definition of polyuria is

2.0 L

Prior to chemical tests for glycosuria, clinicians checked for sweetness of urine as a sign of

diabetes mellitus

Loop diuretics reduce body water content by acting on

the countercurrent multiplier system

A hospital patient produces 4 mL/min of urine with a urea concentrationof 8 mg/mL. Venous blood draw reveals urea concentration of 0.4 mg/mL. What is the percentage of cleared urea from glomerular filtrate?

80%

Which two substances are most useful for determining a patient's glomerular filtration rate

insulin and creatinine

Creatinine has a renal clearanceof 140mL/min due to the fact that

it is secreted by the renal tubules

Which of the following is not found in the ureter

skeletal muscle

Which muscle is located in the bladder

detrusor

Which is not a portion of the urethra

internal urethral sphincter

Micturition is another term for

the elimination of urine

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