BCHS - Global 9 - Vocab

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Nomad

person who moves from place to place in search of food

Cultural diffusion

Exchange of ideas, customs, and goods among cultures

Neolithic

New Stone Age

Pharaoh

Egyptian ruler

Fertile Crescent

crescent-shaped region of good farmland created by the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

Middle Kingdom

traditional name for Chinese civilization, so-called because the Chinese believed China was the center of the Earth

dynasty

ruling family

Mandate of Heaven

divine approval to rule

feudalism

system of government in which local lords control their own lands but owe military service and other support to a greater lord

Maurya dynasty

ruled the first united Indian empire

bureaucracy

system of managing government through departments that are run by appointed officials

polis

city-state in ancient Greece

aristocracy

government ruled by the landholding elite

Hellenistic

type of culture, resulting from Alexander the Great's conquests that blended eastern and western influences

Republic

system of government in which officials are chosen by the people

Senate

most powerful governing body of ancient Rome

Patricians

member of the landholding upper class in ancient Rome

Plebeians

member of the lower class in ancient Rome
i.e. farmers, merchants, artisans, traders

Pax Romana

Roman Peace

Laws of the Twelve Tables

laws of ancient Rome written on 12 tablets and displayed in the marketplace

aqueducts

bridge like stone structures that carried water from the hills to the cities

Silk Road

ancient trade route that linked china with lands to the west

Wudi

most famous of the Han emperors

monopoly

complete control of a product or business by one person or group

animism

belief that ever living and nonliving think in nature has a spirit

brahman

single unifying spirit of the Hindu belief

reincarnation

rebirth of the soul in a new body

Karma

in Hinduism, all the deed of a person's life that affect existence in the next life

Dharma

in Hinduism, the moral and religious duties that are expected of an individual

Upanishad

philosophical dialogues about Hindu beliefs

Buddha

Enlightened One

monotheistic

belief in one god

Torah

sacred scripture of the Hebrews

Messiah

savior sent by God
Jesus

Bible

sacred text of Christianity

hijra

Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina in 622

Quran

sacred scriptures of Islam

Sharia

system of Islamic laws

missionaries

people dedicated to spreading a religion

disapora

scattering of people

untouchable

outcasts who lived harsh lives

joint families

parents, children, grandparents, uncles and their children shared a common home

patriarchal

father or oldest male heading the household

decimal system

system we use based on the number 10

Arabic numerals

written numbers we use today

stupas

large dome-shaped shrines that contained the remains of holy people

Tang dynasty

powerful dynasty that ruled China from 618 to 907

tributary states

independent stat that must acknowledge the supremacy of another state and pay tribute to its ruler

gentry

wealthy landowners who preferred scholarship over physical labor

porcelain

hard shiny pottery

autocrat

single ruler with complete authority

Justinian's Code

code of laws organized by the Byzantine emperor Justinian in the 500s

Icons

holy images of Jesus, the Virgin Mary or saints of the Orthodox Christian church

Mosaics

pictures or designs formed by inlaid pieces of stone or other materials, often showed biblical scenes

Patriarch

highest church official in the Orthodox Christian Church

Schism

permanent split (i.e. between the Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church)

Kiev

a city in present-day Ukraine where the first Russian state was established in the 800's

Caliph

Successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the Muslims

Sunnis

Muslims who believed that the caliph should be chosen by Muslim leaders

Shiites

Another Muslim group believed that only the descendants of the prophet Muhammad should be his successors.

Umayyad dynasty

Muslim dynasty from 661-750 that spread Islam to the Atlantic in the West and to the Indus Valley in the East

Abbassid dynasty

During this dynasty the Muslim world experienced a golden age
Let by Abu al-Abbas

Medieval

relating to or belonging to the Middle Ages

Charlemagne

Frankish king who built an empire that stretched across modern-day France, Germany and part of Italy

Chivalry

a code that knights adopted in the late Middle Ages; requiring them to be brave, loyal and true to their word; they had to fight fairly in battle

manorialism

economic system structured around a lord's manor
Each manor often included 1 or more villages

Serfs

a person who lived on and farmed a lords land in feudal times

Secular

Worldly

Excommunicated

Excluded from the Catholic Church

Pope Innocent III

Excommunicated King John of England

Monasteries

Communities where Christian men or women focused on spiritual goals

anti-Semitism

prejudice against Jewish people

Gothic

a style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries
(pointed arches and flying buttresses)

Crusades

Series of religious wars

Urban II

pope who called for the First Crusade (1042-1099)

Council of Clermont

a meeting that took place in 1095 where pope Urban II urged bishops and nobles to support a war against the Muslims to take back the Holy Land (Palestine)

Saladin

(1137-1193) Powerful Muslim ruler during Third Crusade, defeated Christians at Hattin took Jerusalem

Richard the Lion-Hearted

English king, leader of the Third Crusade, agreed to a truce with Saladin

Shinto

traditional Japanese religion
"the way of the gods"

Kami

gods or nature spirits of Japanese religion, which lived in all things, such as waterfalls, sand, and great trees

Zen Buddhism

Chinese sect
Value peace, simple living, nature and beauty

Shoguns

top military commanders

Daimyo

Vassal lords
received land in exchange for a promise to support the shogun with their armies when needed

samurai

lesser warriors
promised loyalty to the daimyo

Bushido

strict code of conduct that samurai lived by

Haiku

a major form of Japanese verse, written in 17 syllables divided into 3 lines of 5, 7, and 5 syllables, and employing highly evocative allusions and comparisons, often on the subject of nature or one of the seasons.

Genghis Khan

A Mongolian general and emperor of the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, known for his military leadership and great cruelty. He conquered vast portions of northern China and southwestern Asia.

Golden Horde

a Mongolian army that swept over eastern Europe in the 13th century

Kublai Khan

Mongol ruler, he completed the conquest of China and founded the Yuan dynasty

Mughal dynasty

established by Babur in India in 1526; the name is taken from the supposed Mongol descent of Babur, but there is little indication of any Mongol influence in the dynasty; became weak after rule of Aurangzeb in first decades of 18th century.

Akbar the Great

Greatest Mughal ruler
Akbar won the support of Hindus because of his tolerant policies

Pax Mongolia

A time of peace and prosperity when trade increased between Europe and Asia.

Marco Polo

Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324)

Ibn Battuta

Scholar from Morocco
Traveled through Asia and documented his journey

Zheng He

Chinese admiral who set out with a fleet of ships
Goal was to promote Chinese trade and to collect tribute from less powerful lands

Canton

City in china that became an important center for global trade

Mogadishu

a coastal city that dominated Africa gold trade between about 1100 and 1300; the present-day capital of Somalia.

Cairo

Major Egyptian port
Transferred good to Italian ships then carried to Europe across the Mediterranean Sea

Venice

With partnership Egypt came to dominate trade with the East

Trade Fairs

site of regular trading activity in medieval Europe

Hanseatic League

An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century.

Bubonic Plague

Black Death
Highly contagious disease spread by the fleas that lived on rats

Epidemic

outbreak the spreads quickly and affects a large number of people

Guild

A medieval organization of crafts workers or trades people.

apprentice

works for an expert to learn a trade

Capitalism

economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and operated for profit

Renaissance

period of great creativity and change in Europe from the 1300's through the 1600's
word means "rebirth"

Humanism

intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on worldly subjects rather than religious ones

Michelangelo

Sculptor, engineer, poet, painter, architect
Statue of David
Ceiling at Sistine Chapel

Leonardo da Vinci

Mona Lisa
painter, sculptor, inventor, architect

Shakespeare

English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)

Machiavelli

Wrote The Prince
advises rulers on how to gain and maintain power

Impact of the Printing Press

Books became more available
Literacy increased
Ideas spread rapidly

Causes of the Reformation

The Renaissance
Strong Monarchs
Problems in the church

Martin Luther

did not believe in sale of indulgences
Believe Christians reached heaven only through faith in God
didn't believe that priest had special powers
Ideas spread to N. German and Scandinavia
Followers called themselves Protestants

95 Theses

95 arguments against indulgences posted on a church in Wittenberg

Protestant Reformation

the period when Europeans broke away from the Catholic Church and formed new Christian churches

John Calvin

Believed Christians reached heaven only through faith in God
Thought people were born sinners
Preached predestination
Ideas spread to German, France, Holland, England and Scotland

Ignatius Loyola

This was the man who started the Jesuit movement to help people to find God around the world

Effects of the Reformation

Religious and Political divisions
Religious conflicts
Anti-Semitism
Witch Hunts

Common Law

uniform system of justice, developed in England, based on court decisions that became accepted legal principles

Magna Carta

Charter that placed limits on the king's power

Parliament

representative assembly of England

savanna

grassy plains

desert

dry, barren land

Ghana

Control trade in gold and salt across W. Africa
Women work in business and government
King has Muslim advisers

Mali

Conquered Ghana
Mansa Musa - great empire
Controls gold trade routes
Timbuktu become a great trading city and center of learning

Songhai

grows into largest W. African state
Controls important trade routes
emperor sets up Muslim dynasty

Swahili

language that mixed Arabic words with Bantu, and African language

Olmecs

invented calendar and a system of writing made up of carved inscriptions

Maya

Farming and Trade; Religion very important and priests high place in social hierarchy
Gian temples, raised farm fields, hieroglyphic writing, zero, 365 day calendar

Aztecs

Social classes
Schools, medical advances, Tenchtitlan, able to produce abundance of food

Inca

Centralized Governments, polytheistic, road system, record keeping, medicine

Quipus

knotted strings used by Incan officials for keeping records

Terraces

flat area of land on a steep hillside

Zhu Yuanzhang

led a rebellion that successfully overthrew Mongol rule

Ming Dynasty

civil service exams
tried to eliminate corruptions in the bureaucracy

Zheng He

a admiral who established trade links with many distant commerce centers
brought exotic animals back to China

China influences Korea

Buddhism
Confucian ideas
Chinese system of writing
Chinese art styles
porcelain making
printing

Constantinople

Every gal in Constantinople
Lives in Istanbul, not Constantinople
So if you've a date in Constantinople
She'll be waiting in Istanbul
Byzantine's capital

Suleiman

Ottoman sultan who brought the Ottoman Empire to its height; he succeeded in defeating the Habsburgs and capturing Vienna.

sultan

military and political leader with absolute authority over a Muslim country

millet

a religious community of non-Muslims
each millet was allowed to maintain its own religious traditions and educate its people as long as they obey Ottoman law

janissaries

members of an elite force in the Ottoman army

mosques

Muslim house of worship

Reconquista

campaign begun by Christians in the 700s to recapture Spain from the Muslims

cartographer

mapmaker

astrolabe

instrument used to determine latitude by measuring the position of the stars

Vasco da Gama

explorer; route around Africa and traveled across the Indian ocean to an Indian port

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