ring-shaped coral reef around a lagoon
coral reef that forms around a sunken volcanic island
part of a continent that slopes gently away from the shoreline
part of a continent between the continental shelf and the ocean floor
small animals found in warm, shallow ocean waters
bending of Earth's winds and ocean currents by Earth's rotation
highest point on an ocean wave
stream of water flowing in the oceans
stream of water that moves up and down in ocean depths
outgoing, or falling tide
incoming, or rising tide
coral reef that is directly attached to a shore
flat-topped, underwater seamount
shallow body of water between a reef and the mainland
mineral lump found on the ocean floor
study of Earth's oceans
ocean sediment that contains the remains of many ocean organisms
amount of dissolved salts in ocean water
volcanic mountain on the ocean floor
echo-sounding system that bounces sound waves off the ocean floor
underwater research vessel
layer of ocean water in which the temperature drops sharply with depth
regular change in the level of Earth's oceans
deep canyon on the ocean floor
lowest point of an ocean wave
regular up-and-down movement of water
body of salt water covering much of Earth's surface
changing of a liquid to a gas
heated groundwater that erupts onto Earth's surface
water that collects in pores in soil and sinks into the ground
low spot in Earth's surface filled with still water
loop in a mature river
curved lake formed when a bend in a river is cut off at both ends
body of water similar to a lake but usually smaller and shallower
tiny hole or space
water that falls to Earth's surface from the atmosphere
part of a river where the current is swift
natural flow of groundwater to Earth's surface
repeated pattern of water movement between Earth and the atmosphere
steep fall of water, as of a stream, from a height
upper layer of saturated rock and soil
hole dug below the water table that fills with groundwater
wearing away of rock particles by wind and water
series of connected underground caves
removal of loose material from Earth's surface by wind
triangular deposit of sediment located at the mouth of a river
process by which material carried by erosion is dropped in new places
oval-shaped mound of till
process by which weathered material is removed and carried from a place
boulder left behind by a retreating glacier
flat area on the side of a river where sediments are deposited during floods
moving river of ice and snow
small glacial valley above a main valley
large piece of a glacier that enters the ocean
large sheet of ice found near Earth's poles
land that has sinkholes, caverns, and underground rivers
thick deposits of windblowen dust
movement of water parallel to a shoreline
downhill movement of weathered materials caused by gravity
ridge of till deposited by a melting glacier
water from rain or snow that flows into streams and rivers from surface areas
long, offshore underwater deposit of sand
gap formed when waves cut completely through a section of rock
column of rock remaining after the collapse of a sea arch
large hole in the ground formed when the roof of a cavern collapses
long, narrow deposit of sand connected at one end to the shore
pile of rocks and rock particles that collects at the base of a slope
rock material deposited by a glacier
smaller stream that flows into the main stream of a river system
flat section of rock formed by the erosion of a sea cliff
rain containing acids produced by water chemically combined wtih certain gases
soild rock that lies beneath the soil
chemical reaction that occurs when carbonic acid reacts with certain minerals
weathering that changes the chemical makeup of rocks
decaying remains of plants & animals
chemical reaction that occurs when minerals with little water content react with water
mechanical weathering caused by the freezing & melting of water
removing or washing away the minerals in soil
weathering in which the chemical makeup of rocks does not change
chemical change that occurs when oxygen reacts with another substance
soil remaining on top of the bedrock from which it formed
mixture that includes silt, sand, and clay
all the layers that make up the soil in an area
size of soil particles
soil moved away from the bedrock from which it was formed
breaking down of rocks and other materials on Earth's surface
theory that the continents were at once one or more times a single landmass that broke apart and eventually moved into the positions they are in today.
movement of a gas or a liquid caused by changes in temperature.
place where magma reaches the surface of a tectonic plate.
underground pocket of molten rock.
an ocean-floor feature resembling a mountain ridge on land.
single, giant landmass, or continent, that later broke apart.
place where two plates meet.
flat area between two ridges that is formed by spreading plates.
process that forms new seafloor.
place where old oceanic crust is forced back down into an ocean trench.
large, solid piece of Earth's surface.
theory of plate tectonics
theory that Earth's crust is broken into plates that float on the upper part of the mantle.
deep canyon on the ocean floor.
upward fold of a mountain.
large hole that forms when the roof of a magma dome collapses.
volcanic cone made up of rock particles, dust, and ash.
volcanic cone made up of alternating layers of lava and rock particles.
pit at the top of a volcanic cone.
mountain formed when upfolds in rocks created a rounded structure that looks like a bowl turned upside down.
sudden, strong movement of Earth's crust.
height of a point on Earth above or below sea level.
place on Earth's surface directly above the focus.
break in Earth's crust along which movement occurs.
mountain formed when normal faults uplift a block of rock.
point beneath Earth's surface where an earthquake starts.
mountain formed by the folding of rock layers.
break in a rock.
physical feature of Earth's solid surface.
magma that reaches Earth's surface.
fastest earthquake wave.
large, flat area just above sea level.
large, flat area at a high elevation.
scale that measures the energy released by an earthquake.
Ring of Fire
major earthquake and volcano zone that almost forms a circle around the Pacific Ocean.
second earthquake wave to be recorded at a seismograph station.
instrument that detects and measures earthquakes.
volcanic cone made up of layers of hardened lava.
highest point on a mountaintop.
downward fold of a mountain.
large ocean wave caused by an earthquake.
volcano opening from which lava flows.
movement of magma inside Earth.
vent and the volcanic material around it.
true age of a rock or fossil
hardened tree sap
mold filled with hardened sediments
fossilized dung or the stomach contents of ancient animals
remains or traces of an organism that lived long ago
natural fuel that was formed from the remains of living things, such as: coal, oil, or natural gas
stone used to grind food
geologic time scale
outline of the major divisions in Earth's history
length of time it takes for one-half the amount of a radioactive element to change into a stable element
fossil used to help determine the relative age of rock layers
law of superposition
states that each undisturbed sedimentary rock layer is older than the layer above it
imprint or hollow in rock that is shaped like and made by an organism
age of an object compared to the age of another object
sedimentary rock made up of fragments of rock
series of events that happen over and over again
texture of a metamorphic rock that has mineral crystals arranged in bands
rock formed by the crystallization of hot melted rock or minerals
magma that reaches Earth's surface
molten rock inside Earth
rock formed when existing rocks are changed by heat and pressure
sedimentary rock made up of dissolved minerals or the remains of living things
texture of metamorphic rock that does not have mineral crystals arranged in bands
large body of igneous rock that can form into different shapes when magma cools inside Earth's crust
mixture of minerals, generally cemented together
series of natural processes by which rocks are slowly changed from one kind of rock to another kind of rock
rock formed from pieces of other rocks that are pressed together
size of crystals in an igneous rock
test that helps to identify minerals containing calcium carbonate
smallest part of an element that can be identified as that element
formula that shows the elements that make up a compound
shorthand way of writing the name of an element
tendency of some minerals to split along smooth, flat surfaces called planes
substance made up of two or more elements that are chemically combined
solid substance with its atoms arranged in a regular, three-dimensional pattern
formation of minerals caused by processes such as cooling and evaporation
amount of matter in a given volume
simple substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means
process by which a liquid changes into a gas
tendency of some minerals to break into pieces with uneven surfaces
stone that has been cut and polished
property of a mineral that relates to how much the mineral resists being scratched
how a mineral's surface reflects light
force of attraction or repulsion assoicated with magnets
naturally occurring, inorganic solid formed from elements or compounds and having a definite chemical makeup and regular atomic structure
smallest part of a substance that has all the properties of that substance
mineral that is mined because it contains useful metals or nonmetals
observable characteristic that describes an object
process that occurs when elements and compounds leave a solution and crystallize out as solids
mixture in which the particles of one substance are evenly mixed with the particles of another substance
color of the powder left by a mineral
number in a chemical formula that shows how many of each atom are in one molecule of a compound
envelope of gases surrounding Earth
difference in elevation between one contour line and the next
line drawn on a map that connects all points having the same elevation
innermost region of Earth
solid, thin outer layer of Earth
error in shape, size, or distance
study of Earth and its history
height of a point on Earth above or below sea level
three-dimensional model of Earth's surface
part of Earth that is water
distance in degrees north or south of the equator
list of map symbols and their meanings
solid part of Earth
measurment in degrees east or west of the prime meridian
thick layer of Earth below the crust
flat model of Earth's surface
drawing of Earth's surface, or part of it, on a flat surface
line on a map or a globe running fron the North Pole to the South Pole along Earth's surface
horizontal line on a map or globe that circles Earth from east to west at intervals starting at the equator
feature that relates distances on a map to actual distances on Earth's surface
person who studies or works on only one part of a subject
round, three-dimensional object
drawing on a map that represents a real object
general form and shape of the land on Earth's surface
information you collect when you observe something
tool scientists use to represent an object or process
computer model that usually shows a process
amount used to measure something
basic unit of length or distance
amount of matter in something
basic unit of mass
amount of space an object takes up
basic unit of liquid volume
curve at the surface of a liquid in a thin tube
measure of the amount of heat energy something contains
to form a conclusion
to state ahead of time what you think is going to happen
suggested answer to a question or problem
set of hypotheses that have been supported by testing over and over again
anything that can affect the outcome of an experiment
something that does not change
experiment in which all the conditions except one are kept constant
up-and-down movement of air
instrument that measures wind speed
envelope of gases surrounding the Earth
instrument used to measure air pressure
process by which a cell releases energy from food molecules
transfer of heat through matter by direct contact
transfer of heat within a liquid or a gas
anything that has mass and volume
third layer of the atmosphere
wind that changes direction within the seasons
metric unit of force
amount of force per unit of area
energy given off by the Sun that can travel through empty space
movement of the Sun's energy through empty space
second layer of the atmosphere
upper layer of the atmosphere
lowest layer of the atmosphere
horizontal movement of air
instrument that indicates wind direction
large volume of air with about the same temperature and amount of moisture throughout
amount of material something can hold
light, feathery cloud
forward edge of a cold air mass, formed when a cold air mass pushes under a warm air mass
big, puffy clouds
temperature to which air must be cooled to reach saturation
changing of a liquid into a gas
boundary between air masses of different densities
ice formed from condensation below the freezing point of water
amount of water vapor in the air
tropical storm with very strong winds
line on a weather map that connects points of equal air pressure
line on a weather map that joins places that have the same temperatures
unit of measurement for air pressure
polar air mass
air mass that forms over cold regions
water that falls to Earth from the atmosphere
instrument used to find relative humidity
device used to measure precipitation
amount of water vapor in the air compared with the amount of water vapor the air can hold at capacity
filled to capacity
actual amount of water in the air
record of weather information at a weather station
sheetlike cloud that forms layers across the sky
storm with thunder, lightning, and often heavy rain and strong winds
small, very violent funnel-shaped cloud that spins
process by which plants give off water vapor into the air
tropical air mass
air mass that forms over warm regions
forward edge of a warm air mass, formed when a warm air mass pushes over a cold air mass