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What is so important about Egyptian Architecture?

Building Power

What was the 'highway' of the era?

The Nile River

Nile o-meter- Why Important?

Allowed scribes to make predictions

Mortuary- Funerary Complexes- What Purpose?

Rejoin gods in after life.

How were workers paid?

Food, beer, or clothing

How did design aspects EVOLVE?

Grew through trial and error

Where did materials come from?

Limestone, stone, and rock

Mortuary Temples of Old Kingdom- Mastabas- Describe.

People offered gifts in the chapel

Engineering interior chambers- Post & Lintel- Define.

Post was the supporting part of the Lintel

What is the capital of Egypt?

Memphis

Dam Dimensions

Saved city, 49 feet around city hall, in between the was were loose stone, rock and rubble.

Ruler: Djoser

Old Kingdom- 2667- 2648 BC.

Djoser's tomb at Saqqara= Step Pyramid- Why is it important?

Was the most elaborate, 62.5 meters high, Is buried inside it as well as queens and children.

First Architect= Imhotep. What were his titles?

High Priest, Prime minister, and treasurer for Djoser.

The evolution of pyramid building?

Built pyramids to fool people who tried to rob them.

Ruler: Snefu

Great Pyramid Builders- Old Kingdom- Dyansty IV (2613- 2589 BC). Consolidated power

Red Pyramid was the first true pyramid- Why?

Also called the North Pyramid, allowed pharoahs to place weight on top and corral would spread it out. Interior was made up of arches and rooms.

Ruler: Cheops (Khofu)

2551-2528 BC

Contracting the Great Pyramid- Details:

2,300,000 limestone bricks, Rudimentary copper and stone cutting blocks, Barges to float blocks, used pearly white limestone to polish the outside. Labor=4,000 workers, Took 23 years to build.

Design of the Exterior and Interior

Multiple rooms in the southern part (usually had the body, also the heart was the only thing kept) Other body parts were in the Northern part in jars.

Sarcophagus- location?

Located in the lower chamber

Ka Statue- Location?

The statue was located in the higher chamber.

What was around the pyramids?

Huge Scale, Chapels, Burial Chambers

The Sphinx

Great Pyramid (built by Chephren), built from one rock and then more was added.

What does the Lion on the sphinx symbolize?

Might

What does the head on the sphinx symbolize?

Intelligence

What ended the Old Kingdom?

Lack or loss of power/ natural causes

Ruler: Sesostris III

1870-1831 BC, Middle Kingdom

Bohan Fort- Details?

A fort built in mid-evil style, had multiple walls, and was along the nile

What covered all of the forts on the southern end of Egypt?

Dams

Where was the capital now?

Thebes

New Kingdom Summary

Thebes= capital, time of temples and monuments, built new cities, A female pharoah

Ruler: Hatsheput

1473-1458- New Kingdom

How did Hatsheput come to power?

WIdow of Teknos II

Senmut

Architect (26 statues of Hatsheput)

Deir El Bahari

Hatsheput and Senmut built, built directly into a cliff, had lots of columns, open trade

Temple Luxor?

Giant columns, painted and different designs. (Post and Lindel)

Ruler: Amenhotep II

1400 or so to 1353- New Kingdom

Define: Columns

Sun and winged asp.

Colonnade

Collection of columns in a row

Parts of a Columns

Capital (Top), Shaft ( Middle), Base (Bottom) also Lotus Bud (Open), Lotus Flower (closed), and fluted

Ruler: Amenhotep IV

1352-1336- New Kingdom, changed name to Akhetaton

Monotheism

To Aton= light of the world

City planning at Akhetaten. Details.

Mostly destroyed, impatient with building, used bricks, people didn't like that he worshiped on god this was different from other pharoahs.

The new city was Precursor to ___________ Architecture

Roman

Ruler: Seit (y) I

1294-1279 BC

Hypostyle Hall at Karnak

Military man built, responsible for getting a lot of money

Ruler: Ramses II or Ramessess II (The Great)

1279-1212 BC

Abu Simbel- Ramesseum-Detail Attributes.

2 temples, engineers cut blocks 200 feet into a mountain, Stands 60 feet tall, Were cut from scratch

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