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The Nile River

highlands

a mountainous part of a country

plateau

a raised area of land, such as a hill or mountain, with a flat top

desert

a geographic region with too little rainfall to support much plant life; also a vegetation zone

river basin

the area drained by a river and its tributaries

water cycle

the movement of water from the surface of the Earth to the atmosphere and back again

silt

sand, mud or clay made up of fine bits of soil found at the bottom of a river or lake

perennial irrigation

a system that allows for the year round watering of crops

hydroelectric potential

the electrical power that can be generated from the flowing of water

evaporation

the process by which a liquid, such as water, turns into a vapor, or gas

water vapor

water in the form of a gas, as in steam or moisture in the atmosphere

condense

to lose heat and change from a vapor or gas into a liquid. Moisture, or water vapor, in the air condenses to form rain

infiltration

the movement of water from Earth's surface into the soil

runoff

water from rainfall that is not absorbed into the soil and instead flows into streams or lakes

headwaters

the stream or streams that make up the beginnings of a river

confluence

the flowing together of two or more streams

cataracts

a series of rapids and low waterfalls on a river

wadis

the usually dry bed of a river or stream in a desert or semiarid area

reservoir

an artificial lake where water is stored

delta

the triangle-shaped deposit of sand and sediment that occurs where a river flows into and ocean

savanna

a type of tropical grassland

chaparral

a vegetation zone of mainly small trees and bushes adapted to a Mediterranean climate

nomadic herding

the raising of livestock for food by moving herds from place to place to find pasture and water

oasis

an isolated spot in a desert where water is found

Lake Victoria

a large, shallow lake in Uganda. It is the main source of the White Nile

As Sudd

a huge swamp on the plains of Sudan. Here, the White Nile spreads into many small channels clogged with vegetation

Lake Tana

is in the forested hills of Ethiopia. Run off flows into Lake Tana, which then feeds the Blue Nile.

Khartoum

the capital of Sudan, is the location of the CONFLUENCE, or coming together of the White and Blue Nile.

Great Bend

is a wide turn in the Nile River. North of Khartoum, the river makes this wide turn to the south and the west

arid landscape

in northern Sudan the Nile enters a vast desert. The Nile provide the only relief, trees grow on its banks, and people irrigate small farm plots

Aswan High Dam

was built to develop the Nile's hydroelectric potential and to control the river's flow. Lake Nasser, a large reservoir on the border of Egypt and Sudan was formed as a result

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