← AP World - Era V (1750-1900) Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Industrialization This gradually changed the way that things were produced, starting in the mid 18th century, but escalating greatly by the mid 19th century. Textiles The first industry to be industrialized in the 18th century. Britain In the mid 1700s this place was the first to develop industrialized methods. Atlantic Ocean This body of water contributed to Britain, the United States, France, and eventually Germany becoming industrialized coal Access to rivers, iron ore, timber, and _____ was a major determining factor in which countries were able to industrialize during this period. population Demographically, a dramatic increase in _______ during the 1600s and 1700s in Northern Europe contributed to the rise of industry there. urbanization A shift in population toward cities--corresponds to the rise of industrialization and was also a consequence of industrialization. enclosure A movement in England during the 1600s and 1700s in which the government took public lands and sold them off to private landowners--contributing to a population shift toward the cities and a rise in agricultural productivity. Four-field rotation Crop rotation methods are ancient but this Dutch method from the 1500s was popularized in Britain in the 1700s and led to a large increase in agricultural productivity. It typically involved rotating wheat, turnips, barley and clover, and allowed livestock to be bred year-round. private property Many liberals of the Enlightenment era believed, such as that citizens have _____ _____ rights and that people should generally be free to do what they want with their own possessions. Laws began to increasingly protect ____ ____. This contributed to the rise of Capitalism. canals Governments in northern Europe, especially in Britain, built these man-made waterways in the 1700s and 1800s to benefit commerce. It contributed to the rise of industrialization. imperialism Industrialization was not only associated with increased trade for foreign resources, but by the mid 1800s it also caused and increase in ______. Industrialized countries would exploit weaker countries for their resources. fossil fuels This new source of energy powered steam engines and internal combustion engines and greatly increased the energy available to industrial societies. factory system This new system gradually replaced localized cottage industry. Workers were paid by the hour instead of for what they produce. On one hand it decreased the need for skilled labor, but in other ways it increased the amount of specialization due to labor being concentrated in factories. Japan During the 19th century, industrialization spread significantly to new places in Europe, the United States, to Russia, and also to this East Asian country. Second Industrial Revolution Steel, chemicals, electricity. This is the name for the new wave of more heavy industrialization starting around the 1860s. monoculture Cotton, rubber, palm oil, sugar, whale blubber, minerals etc. Industrialization led to an increased demand for foreign raw resources. This is a term for countries relying solely on the exportation of mainly one raw resource. India Rapid industrialization hurt the economies of places that were still agriculturally based. For example, textiles in _____ , a British colony. Opium Wars Industrial countries sought new places to sell their goods. This is seen around the world. This military conflict in Between China and Britain illustrates this. South Africa Rare metals are needed for industry such as seen with the increased mining activity in the British colony of ______ ______. John Stuart Mill Arguably the most famous English philosopher and politician of the 1800s. Champion of liberty over unlimited state control. Also famous for adding falsification as a key component of the scientific method. Adam Smith Seen as the Father of Capitalism. Published The Wealth of Nations in 1776. stock markets New financial instruments--especially ways for businesses to raise money--were developed in this period. This includes insurance, corporations, and ____ ____, exchanges where corporate shares could be sold. transnational Some businesses in this period became _________ in that their ownership and organization were not confined to a particular country, such as with the United Fruit Company. telegraph The major 19th century communication development. railroads Steamships and _______ were the major transportation developments of the 19th century. socialism Industrialization led to groups that opposed what they saw as exploitation of workers and instead promoted an alternative vision of society where everyone would be equal. What is this belief called? Marxism Emerged as the most famous socialist belief system during the 19th century. Saw all of history as the story of class struggle. Anarchism Many groups including the socialists and Marxists of the 19th century often opposed the idea of a state. They believed society would function better without a government and that governments do nothing but promote exploitation. What is this belief system called? Qing The Chinese government is ruled by this ethnically Manchurian dynasty during this period. They attempted to hold on to pre-industrial ways and resisted foreign involvement in their country (without success). Ottoman Empire Called the "Sick Man of Europe" due to their slow imperial decline and inability to adapt to the new political and economic developments of this period. Meiji Restoration The state-sposored industrialization and westernization effort in the late 19th century that also involved the elimination of the Shogunate and power being handed over to the Japanese Emperor, who had previously existed as mere spiritual/symbolic figure. Muhammad Ali Not a modern nationalist, but this Egpytian figure is seen as the father of modern Egypt and made modernizing reforms in the military, economic and cultural spheres during the 19th century. suffrage Industrial societies such as in Britain, France, and the US produced a lot of criticism, so some governments were forced to respond with reforms such as free public education and expanded ________ for all men. Middle Class The _____ ______ also called the bourgeoisie, was essentially a new and extremely powerful social class within industrialized societies. They were the wealthy but non-aristocratic class of property owners and the biggest beneficiaries of industrial prosperity. But the Marxists saw them as exploiters of the working class. Working Class 19th century Industrial societies developed the idea that there were only really two social classes: property-owning middle class and then the _____ _____. Before the factory system poorer people though of themselves in more diverse terms. Divine right Enlightenment ideas such as the social contract, natural rights, and the general will were a challenge to this traditional basis of rule by monarchs. Jacobins The most radical political faction of the French Revolution who ruled France during the Reign of Terror. Congress of Vienna Following Napoleon's exile, this meeting of European rulers in Austria established a system by which the balance of power would be maintained, liberal revolutions would be repressed, as would imperial expansion, and the creation of new countries in Europe. Toussaint L'Overture The main leader of the Haitian independence movement. Simon Bolivar South American revolutionary leader, who helped organize revolutions in many countries but was unsuccessful in fulfilling his dream of a unified South American nation. caudillos By the 1830s, Latin America was mostly ruled by these creole military dictators. Neocolonialism Also called economic imperialism, this is the domination of newly independent countries by foreign business interests that causes colonial-style colonies to continue, such a monoculture. Franco-Prussian War This was a major war between the French and the Germans in 1871 that brought about the unification of Germany. It was caused by Otto Von Bismarck altering a telegram from the Prussian King to provoke the French into attacking Prussia. Crimean War 19th century war between the Ottomans and Russia. France, Britain, and Italians helped the Ottomans to defeat Russia but it proved the growing weakness of the Ottoman Empire. zollverein The name of the free trade zone that German states created prior to their unification. Java War In this war (1825-1830), the people of the Island of Java rebelled against their Dutch colonizers. The Dutch won after suffering 8000 deaths and killing perhaps as many as 200,000 islanders. Suez Canal Egyptians with funding from France and later Britain created this major transportation project completed in 1869. family wage As industrialization gradually became more intense in certain areas men displaced women in factories and were paid more partly because men were seen as requiring a _____ _____. public education With increased birthrates, urbanization, the outlawing of child labor, the increase of voting rights, and the influence of socialism, families were changed by the children spending much of their time in free community-sponsored ______ ______. industrialization From the 1500s to the 1700s, trans-oceanic empires expanded for mercantilist policies and to enrich land-owning nobles. Now during the 1800s trans-oceanic empires are expanding due to this economic motivation. 1857 In what year did the Indians attempt a widespread but disorganized rebellion against the British, resulting in even more intense colonization of India by the British? British East India Company The Indian Rebellion of 1857 caused the British Government to take direct control over the Indian colony, which had previously been controlled by this organization. British Raj The name for the British government's military rule of India between 1858 and 1947. Indonesia The Dutch had a presence in what they called the East Indies from 1595. But during the 19th century their control of this set of islands expanded and became their biggest colony. Spain and Portugal While many new empires were on the rise during the nineteenth century, these European _________ and _______ lost most of their colonies during this period. France This European country lost colonies in the Americas but expanded its presence in Indochina and West Africa. Russia This nation expanded its territory thousands of miles Eastward and also sought to take advantage of a weakened Ottoman Empire. 1880s Before this decade Europeans were mostly on the coasts as traders, explorers, and missionaries. After this decade Europeans began to conquer African territory and destroy African kingdoms. Belgium King Leopold II of this country acquired the massive territory of the Congo as his own private possession, which became one of the most brutal episodes of African colonial history. Berlin Conference In 1884, European powers met in Germany for this gathering. They created a plan for dividing up the remaining territory in Africa. settlers Some colonies in the 19th century imperial involved large numbers of ______ such as in South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and Algeria. economic Although the the US did not attempt to settle or colonize South America, they did exert ________ influence that was imperialistic. United States Japan's Meiji restoration was influenced by the imperialist actions of this country. United States and Russia Both the ______ _____ and _____ emulated European imperialism by expanding their borders and conquering new territories. Balkans Various peoples in this area of Eastern Europe rebelled against Ottoman rule, contributing to their imperial decline. Egypt In the early 19th century, the Ottoman Empire lost this North African country which had been part of it's empire. Britain After Egypt became independent from the Ottomans, it still had to contend with the influence of European imperialists, particularly this nation. Zulu New states emerged on the edge of expanding empires. As the British expanded their South African colony, the ____ Kingdom came into being, led by a man named Shaka. Siam The Kingdom of _____, known today as Thailand, remained relatively independent during this period because they served as a buffer between Britain's colonies in India and France's colonies in Indochina. Cherokee In response to the rapid expansion by the United States, this native tribal group formed a national government, sought to modernize their society, but were forcibly relocated in the 1830s. Germany The spread of nationalism led to the unification of this central European nation, following the Franco-Prussian War in 1871 Italy The spread of nationalism led to the creation of this European nation thanks to figures like Count Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi. Philippines After decades of nationalist resistance against the Spanish (and violent repression of activists) this Pacific Island nation proudly declared independence in 1898. But the Spanish had handed control over to the USA, who had no plans to recognize their independence. Liberia In 1820, the American Colonization Society created a colony in West Africa for freed slaves to go. By the 1840s this colony had its own constitution and became and independent nation. Social Darwinism Although rejected by biologists, this theory from the 1870s by Herbert Spencer and others was used to justify the competition of laissez-faire capitalism, the new racial superiority ideas, and imperialist policies.