Acids and Bases (Chapter 19)

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monoprotic acids

any acid that contains one ionizable proton (hydrogen ion); nitric acid (HNO3) is a monoprotic acid

diprotic acids

any acid that contains two ionizable protons (hydrogen ions); sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is a diprotic acid

tripotic acids

any acid that contains three ionizable protons (hydrogen ions); phosphoric acid (H3PO4) is a triprotic acid

conjugate acid

the particle formed when a base gains a hydrogen ion; NH4+ is the conjugate acid of the base NH3

conjugate base

the particle that remains when an acid has donated a hydrogen ion; OH- is the conjugate base of the acid water

conjugate acid-base pair

two substances that are related by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion; ammonia (NH3) and the ammonium ion (NH4+) are a conjugate acid-base pair

hydronium ion

the positive ion formed when a water molecule gains a hydrogen ion

amphoteric

a substance that can act as both an acid and a base

Lewis acid

any substance that can accept a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond

Lewis base

any substance that can donate a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond

self ionization

a term describing the reaction in which two water molecules react to produce ions

neutral solution

an aqueous solution in which the concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions are equal; it has a pH of 7.0

ion product constant for water

the product of the concentrations of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in water; it is 1 X 10-14 at 25°C

acidic solution

any solution in which the hydrogen-ion concentration is greater than the hydroxide-ion concentration

basic solution

any solution in which the hydroxide-ion concentration is greater than the hydrogen-ion concentration

alkaline solutions

a basic solution

pH

a number used to denote the hydrogen-ion concentration, or acidity, of a solution; it is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion concentration of a solution

strong acids

an acid that is completely (or almost completely) ionized in aqueous solution

weak acids

an acid that is only slightly ionized in aqueous solution

strong bases

a base that completely dissociates into metal ions and hydroxide ions in aqueous solution

weak bases

a base that reacts with water to form the hydroxide ion and the conjugate acid of the base

neutralization reactions

a reaction in which an acid and a base react in an aqueous solution to produce a salt and water

equivalence point

the point in a titration where the number of moles of hydrogen ions equals the number of moles of hydroxide ions

standard solution

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titration

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end point

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