Grammar 3

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Commas

The comma will put a pause in your sentence:
If you would finish eating your lunch, we could play outside.

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The comma separates a list of at least three items: I like to play with Jan, Jill, Joe and Brad.

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When using quotations either at the beginning or the end: Joe said, "Are you coming to the move later?" "Come to the movies," said Joe.

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The comma allows you to combine 2 ideas into a into a single sentence.

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While I work on my homework, my friend will play the piano.

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Use a comma after introductory words or phrases.

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Use a comma to show the relation between a word and a noun phrase that follows.

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A comma splice is the joining of two independent clauses (complete sentence) with only a comma.

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Use a period, a semicolon, or a comma and a coordination conjunction (fanboy) to correct a comma splice (ie,. join two independent clauses.

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The politician gave his speech, the crowd cheered and applauded.

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Correct. The politician gave his speech, The crowd cheered and applauded. (;/,)

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Use a semicolon and a conjunctive adverb to join two independent clauses.

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IN. The bok was interesting, the conclusion was very abrupt.

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Corr. The book was interesting;however, the conclusion was very abrupt.

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The most common conjunctive adverbs include the following:

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accordingly, also, besides, consequently, finally furthermore however indeed meanwhile moreover nevertheless otherwise then therefore thus

Misplaces/Dangling Modifiers

A modifier is a word that describes or limits another word.

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A misplaced modifier is in the wrong position in the sentence and therefore describes the wrong word and changes the writer's meaning.

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Avoid squinting modifiers (words that modify more than one word in the sentence).

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Avoid dangling modifiers that alter a word that does not appear in the sentence.

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in. watching the sunset, the sky was breathtaking. (there is no subject who is "watching" the sunset)

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Watching the sunset, i thought the sky was breathtaking, (the subject I has been added)

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Corr. i was watched the sunset and thought the sky was breathtaking. (the subject i has been added)

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Do not overuse the pronoun "this".

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In. Most of the class received a passing grade on the exam; however, only a few students did well on the written assignment. This caused concern for the professor.

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corr. (same but This consistency)

Quotation Marks

Quotation marks - " -- are used to enclose words that are borrowed or to set off dialog from narrative.

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They always come in pairs - open quotation marks and closed quotation marks, "I am going to work."

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When quoting someone word for word, use quotation marks to show the reader exactly which words are being borrowed from a particular source.

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Quotation marks are used to set off dialog. Ms. McGee said, "Please come here."

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A direct quote may be woven into a sentence or it may be used in its entirety, either within or connected to a given sentence.

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Mr. Smith, the biology teacher, at Sumner Academy, announced today, " all of the biology IB students passed their final exams in January."

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Chapter titles (but not chapter numbers) should be enclosed in quotes.

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Titles in short stories and short poems should be enclosed in quotes

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Titles of newspaper or magazine articles should be

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Titles of essays or short words

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If part of a long item is published over the course of several days or several separate times, these items should be placed in quotes.

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The name of song's titles will be place in quotes, while the album name should be italicized.

Quotation marks

If the quote follows a statement, it should be preceded by a comma. A quotation that ends a sentence should contain the period, exclamation mark, or question mark within the quotation marks.

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If the quote has text after it there should be a comma placed within the quotation mark.

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To enclose a quote within a quote use a single quotation mark.

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