United States geneticist who (with Crick in 1953) helped discover the helical structure of DNA (born in 1928)
discovered the secret of DNA structure in the 1950s with James Watson using Rosalind Franklin's pictures of DNA
carried out the X-ray crystallography analysis of DNA and showed DNA is a helix
scientist who experimented with bacteria to find out how it made people sick. Discovered process of transformation.
Avery, McCarty and MacLeod
1944- repeated portions of Griffith's experiment
-used only heat-killed bacteria
-purified all chemicals from cells
-added each independently* to live cells
-ONLY DNA acted as transforming agent
Hershey and Chase
Used radioactive material to label DNA and protein; infected bacteria passed on DNA; helped prove that DNA is genetic material not proteins
discovered that the amount of adenine equals the amount of thymine, and amount of guanine equals cytosine?
modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA
viruses that infect bacteria
two strands of nucleotides wound about each other; structure of DNA
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the old molecule, and one newly made strand.
origins of replication
Sites where the replication of a DNA molecule begins.
the areas where the double helix separates
DNA is transcibed by these enzymes. Make RNA polymers
the new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' --> 3' direction
A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork.
an enzyme that eventually joins the sugar-phosphate backbones of the Okazaki fragments
An enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer.
An already existing RNA chain bound to template DNA to which DNA nucleotides are added during DNA synthesis.
enzymes that separate the DNA strands
single strand binding protein
During DNA replication, molecules that line up along the unpaired DNA strands, holding them apart while the DNA strands serve as templates for the synthesis of complementary strands of DNA.
a situation in which enzymes remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides that have resulted from replication errors
nucleotide excision repair
The process of removing and then correctly replacing a damaged segment of DNA using the undamaged strand as a guide.
general term for enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleic acid by cleaving chains of nucleotides into smaller units
Repeated DNA sequences at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes.
an enzyme in eukaryotic cells that can add telomeres to the ends of chromosomes after they divide
Short fragments of DNA that are a result of the synthesis of the lagging strand during DNA replication.