Art for Art's Sake
the painter's first loyalty is to the canvas not the outside world or the patron and certainly not for use
tried to create an aesthetic based on natural forms mass produced for a large audience (Antonio Gaudi, Victor Horta and Aubrey Beardsley)
Arts and Craft Movement
dedicated themselves to functional objects of high aesthetic value for a wide public. (John Ruskin, William Morris and Charles Rennie Mackintosh)
any new or cutting-edge cultural manifestation. After 1880 it referred to artists who were ahead of their time and who transgressed the limits of established art forms. Many of these artists rejected the optical world as observed in favor of a fantasy world
Karl Marx and Frederic Engels wrote the Communist Manifesto, which called for the working class to overthrow the capitalist system as labor was exploited to benefit the wealthy and the powerful
developed the theory of natural selection and the survival of the fittest
"Form Follows function"
the famous dictum of Louis Henry Sullivan which became the slogan of modern architecture
developed a system called Pointillism or Divisionism
theory and practice of painting among French painters Name Five of these (Monet, Renoir, Degas, Pissarro, Cassatt, Morisot) who used short strokes of unmixed primary colors to enhance the effect of reflected lights on objects. They focused on the single moment
described the Japanese aesthetic. Areas of flat colors and a new presentation of space that characterize the woodblock prints intrigued the Parisians of the late 1800s.
an object's actual color
seeks to capture the images and sensibility of their age. Besides dealing with the present it also involves the artist's critical examination of and reflection on the premises of art itself
made Impressionism into something "solid and durable"
used the technique into flat shapes, which emphasized color, line and design.
15. Plein-air painting outdoors
Pointillism or Divisionism
which was a careful and systematic organization of color based on scientific color theory
a artists using the broken color technique of Impressionism but carrying it into other areas. Name these ( van Gogh, Gauguin, Seurat, Cezanne)
a sculptor who redefined modern sculpture. He made the unfinished look an aesthetic principle and dissolved the form of the sculpture into flickering patches of light and dark. (Impressionism in sculpture)
Salon de Refuses
was established by Napoleon III because of dissatisfaction with the confining and authoritative decisions of the jurors of the French Academy
the high rise, architectural development which came from the invention of steel and the Otis elevators
exaggerated aesthetic (visual and tactile features)become increasingly esoteric and exotic, mysterious, visionary, dreamlike and fantastic.(Moreau, Redon, Puvis de Chavannes
Vincent van Gogh
used the technique to express feeling (Expressionism)