Atomic Structure

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15 terms · Chapter 4

atom

Is the smallest particle of an element that retains its identity in a chemical reaction.

atomic mass

the weight average of the masses of the isotopes of an element

atomic mass unit

a unit of mass equal to one-twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom

atomic number

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element

cathode ray

a stream of electrons produced at the negative electrode of a tube containing a gas at low pressure.

Dalton's atomic theory

the first theory to relate chemical changes to events at the atomic level.

electron

a negatively charged subatomic particle

group

a vertical column of elements in the periodic table; the constituent elements of a group have similar chemical and physical properties

isotopes

atoms of the same element that have the same atomic number but different atomic masses due to a different number of neutrons.

mass number

the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

neutron

a subatomic particle with no charge and a mass of 1 amu; found in the nucleus of an atom

nucleus

the tiny, dense central portion of an atom, composed of protons and neutrons.

period

a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table

periodic table

an arrangement of elements in which the elements are separated into groups bases on a set of repeating properties

proton

a positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom

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