General Biology I Exam 2 Dillman

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Chlorophyll

Green pigment captures sunlight

Carotenoids

accessory pigment
yellow and orange color

Stroma

Fluid part of the Chloroplast

Thylakoids

Membrane packages in stacks inside the Chloroplast

Phagocytosis

Movement of large molecules, cell pieces or entire cells inside a cell, by enclosing them in a membrane is called:

Pinocytosis

Taking in vacuoles filled with liquid, by wrapping them in a membrane.

Osmosis

Movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane

receptor proteins

Are found in the membrane, bind with molecules and trigger a response
inside the cell

Hypotonic

Higher concentration of
solvent outside causes
water to enter the cell.

Facilitated diffusion

Movement with the
concentration gradient
and using a carrier protein

Active transport

Movement against the concentration gradient using a carrier and expending energy

Isotonic

Equal concentrations of water inside and outside the cell, water moves evenly back and forth.

Solute

What is dissolved in a solution, ex. baking soda, salt

Solvent

What does the dissolving in a solution
ex. Water

Hypertonic

Higher concentration of
solutes outside causes
water to leave the cell

diffusion

Movement from high concentration to low concentration, ex, oxygen in lungs

Enzyme speed

Substrate concentration, pH, Temperature, Enzyme concentration all affect?

Enzymes

Proteins that lower activation energy, substrate specific

substrate

What attaches to an enzyme at the active site, it is a reactant

heat

The form energy is given off during conversion from one form to another

ATP

Adenine, Ribose and
3 Phosphates

Potential or chemical energy

Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins are example of what kind of energy?

entropy

amount of disorder

ADP

What is formed when a phosphate is removed off ATP?

cofactors

Activate enzymes, are inorganic ions such as copper, zinc and iron

ATP

What is needed to convert the 10 remaining G3P back into RuBP

12

How many total G3P are formed at the end of the Calvin Cycle?

RUBP

5 Carbon Molecule that CO2 binds to in the Dark Cycle

NADP

Carries the Hydrogens in the light reaction

Kinetic energy

duck swimming, bird flying and rock rolling down hill are examples of what kind of energy?

heterotrophs

Must eat/ingest preformed food

grana

Stack of Thylakoid disks

back into Photosystem I

Where does the electron go if no Carbon Dioxide is available in the light reaction

photosystem

Made up of a pigment complex of the chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments, get excited by sunlight, found on the thylakoid membranes

G3P

What is formed when ATP uses its energy to remove a H from NADPH and add it to 3PG

3PG

Which molecule is formed when the unstable 6 carbon molecule splits in the Calvin/dark cycle

autotrophs

means produces its own food, by using sunlight or inorganic molecules as energy sources

Light Reaction

Water, splits, ATP made, Oxygen released, and NADPH made

Photosystem I

Gets excited by sunlight at wavelength of 700, splits water,

Photosystem II

Gets excited by sunlight at wavelength of 680, splits water,

Electron Transport Chain

Series of carriers that pass electrons, energy is lost and used to make ATP

Stomata

Openings in the leaf that Carbon Dioxide enter and Oxygen leave through

Endergonic

To run the reaction
energy is put in, products have more energy

energy of activation

amount of energy that is required to start a reaction, get one molecule to react with another

coenzymes

NADP, NADPH, FAD, carry electrons and atoms to help enzymes

Phosphorylation

Adding a phosphate to a molecule, stores energy. Requires an energy input

Electron Transport Chain

Series of carriers on the inner membrane of the mitochondria that transport electrons

Glycolysis

Only stage that occurs during fermentation like in yeast

Citrate

6 carbon molecule produced in the 3rd stage of Cellular Respiration

Vitamins

small organic molecules, required in trace amounts in our diet help synthesize coenzymes

Exergonic

During the reaction energy released, reactants have more energy than products

Catabolism

Breakdown of molecules like Glucose during Cellular Respiration, tend to be exergonic

Products of Aerobic Cellular Respiration

6CO2, 6H2O, 36 ATP

Reactants of Aerobic Cellular Respiration

C6H12O6, 6O2

Reduction

Gaining electrons like Oxygen to make water, during cellular respiration

Oxidation

Losing electrons, example is glucose becoming CO2 during cellular respiration

Chemiosmosis

ATP Production is tied to the
establishment of the H+ gradient

Anabolism

Synthesis reactions where molecules are made, tend to be endergonic

Yield in Fermentation or Anaerobic Respiration

2 ATP's and alcohol or lactic acid

Anaerobic

Respiration without Oxygen

Aerobic

Respiration with Oxygen

Total Yield in Cell Respiration

36 ATP's

Electron Transport Chain

Inputs: NADH, FADH2, O2

Citric acid Cycle

Outputs: CO2, NADH, FADH2, 2 ATP

Cytoplasm

Where Glycolysis occurs

Citric Acid Cycle

Inputs: Acetyl CoA, NAD, FAD, ADP

Preparatory Reaction

Outputs: NADH, Acetyle CoA, 2 Carbon Dioxide

Electron Transport Chain

Outputs: ATP, H2O

Cristae

Folds where the electron transport occurs

Matrix

Space inside the mitochondria
where citric acid cycle occurs

FAD and NAD

Coenzymes that carry Hydrogen Ions for Cell respiration

Glycolysis

Outputs: 2 pyruvate
2 NADH
2ATP total

Preparatory Reaction

Inputs: Pyruvate, 2 CoA and NAD

Glycolysis

Inputs: Glucose, 2NAD and 2 ATP

Extracellular Matrix

Nonliving meshwork of polysaccharides and proteins found outside the cell, help form communication and highways between cells

Endocytosis

Phagocytosis and Pinocytosis

Concentration gradient

The difference between levels of solutes and solvents inside
and outside the cell

tight junction

Junction when the cells zip up, intestines, kidney and the brain

receptor mediated endocytosis

when the molecule binds to the receptor and then the materials are brought inside in a membrane

Plasmodesmata

extensions of the plasma membrane through the cell wall from one plant cell to another

adhesion junctions

uses cytoplasmic plaques to help hold cells together, in heart, stomach and bladder

Exocytosis

Pushing waste from the inside of the cell to the outside, using a vacuole

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