james Blaine and Pan-American
venezuelan boundary dispute
(GC2) 1895, Guiana and Venezula in conflict with each other (discovery of gold), Cleveland called for arbitration, The US determined to enforce the Monroe Doctrine by itself, without relying on the British (got most of the land) navy.
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
expansionist who blended racist and religious reasons to justify American expansion in the 1880s and 1890s; he saw the Anglo-Saxon race as trained by God to expand throughout the world and spread Christianity along the way.
alfred t. Mahan
Author who argued in 1890 that the economic future of the United States rested on new overseas markets protected by a larger navy. Wrote "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History"
samoa and Pago Pago
de lome letter
Spanish Ambassador's letter that was illegally removed from the U.S. Mail and published by American newspapers. It criticized President McKinley in insulting terms. Used by war hawks as a pretext for war in 1898.
Ship that explodes off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor and helps contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War
Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
rough riders and san juan hill
admiral of the united states navy and best known for his victory during the spanish - american war
Hawaiian Ruler, she called for new constitution to increase her power and restore political power to Hawaiians. 1893 she was overthrown by American businessman
1894 wealthy, plantation owner and politician who was named President of New Republic of Hawaii. He asked US to annex Hawaii.
treaty of paris 1898
(WMc) , The treaty that concluded the Spanish American War, Commissioners from the U.S. were sent to Paris on October 1, 1898 to produce a treaty that would bring an end to the war with Spain after six months of hostilitiy. From the treaty America got Guam, Puerto Rico and they paid 20 million dollars for the Philipines. Cuba was freed from Spain.
objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire. Idealism, self-interest, racism, constitutionalism, and other reasons motivated them, but they failed to make their case; the Philippines were annexed in 1900
Discovered that the mosquito transmitted yellow fever and developed a cure. Yellow fever was the leading cause of death of American troops in the Spanish-American War.
Determined that inhabitants of U.S. territories had some, but not all, of the rights of U.S. citizens.
Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble
a state or territory partly controlled by (but not a possession of) a stronger state but autonomous in internal affairs
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901. (p. 743)
Was the Secretary of State in 1899; dispatched the Open Door Notes to keep the countries that had spheres of influence in China from taking over China and closing the doors on trade between China and the U.S.
open door policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
most favored nation
status that afforded the US any and all trading terms according to other powers
big stick policy
Roosevelt's philosophy - In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen
(MF) 1850, Both U.S. and England wanted to build a Panama Canal. This said that if either of us built it, we'd get the builder's permission to use it and would share the profits.
(TR) , negotiations with Colombia, six mile strip of land in Panama, $10 million, US could dig canal without British involvement
TR supported this, the Panamanian rebels are successful and become an independent nation, the US recognizes their independence, we paid them to have a zone there
a group of islands in northeastern West Indies (east of Puerto Rico) discovered by Christopher Colombus in 1493
The engineer who directed the completion of the Panama Canal.
Army physician who helped eradicate Yellow Fever and Malaria from Panama so work on the Panama Canal could proceed
venezuelan crisis 1902
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
haiti controversy 1915-1916
dominican republic 1915
nicaraguan revolt 1911
conflict between russia and japan in 1904 -1905 over control of korea and manchria
san francisco school board incident
1906 - Racist schools segregated Chinese, Korean and Japanese students because of anti-oriental sentiment in California.
Secretary of War under Roosevelt, he reorganized and monderized the U.S. Army. Later served as ambassador for the U.S. and won the 1912 Nobel Peace Prize.
(1905) Japan gets open market control of Korea and US gets open market control of the Phillippines (never official, set of notes taken by taft and prime minister of japan)
an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan whereby the U.S. would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration or students, and Japan would not allow further immigration to the U.S.
great white fleet
1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."
A corollary to the Monroe Doctrine proposed by Henry Cabot Lodge and ratified by the U.S. Senate in 1912 forbidding any foreign power or foreign interest of any kind to acquire sufficient territory in the Western Hemisphere so as to put that government in "practical power of control".
1908 - Japan / U.S. agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other's territories in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door policy in China.
President Woodrow Wilson followed a policy where he pledged to wait and see whether forces opposed to Huerta would soon overthrow him
The South American countries of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, which attempted to mediate a dispute between Mexico and the United States in 1914.
Pancho Villa and General Pershing
Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries
sick man of europe
..., the ottoman empire was referred to the sick man of europe. Europe was waiting for it to die (fall) so it could colonize
..., An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
..., Alliance between Germany, Italy, Austria Hungry
..., blockades all the german ports, choking off germany's imports, including food.
..., American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI
..., after the passenger ship, the Arabic, was torpedoed the Germans promised to give passengers at least a 30 minute warning before sinking non-military ships
..., Agreement in which Germany ceases submarine warfare if British stop mining North Sea
unrestricted submarine warfare
..., A policy that the Germans announced on January 1917 which stated that their submarines would sink any ship in the British waters
..., Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a german foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.
The overthrow of Russia's Provisional Government in the fall of 1917 by Lenin and his Bolshevik forces, made possible by the government's continuing defeat in the war, its failure to bring political reform, and a further decline in the conditions of everyday life.
entry into WWI
added hundreds of thousands of troops to the allied cause
Peace without VIctory
President Wilson call to the fighting nations that neither side would impose harsh terms on the others. Wilson hoped that all nations would join a "league for peace".
Make the World Safe for democracy
Wilson's rationale for entering war; contradicted previous "peace without victory" motto
Committee of public information-creel
12. Name the agency that was in charge of selling the war to the American People, created by George creel
Campaigns to get people to but government war bonds to finance the war, people traveled around America selling them and it was extremely successful in raising funds. (McAdoo)
War Industries Board- Baruch
Managed the transition of the US from a consumer economy to a war economy.
• Government agency that oversaw the production and consumption of food during WWI
• Set high prices for farm products to make production rise and avoid rationing
Espionage Act of 1918
Laws pushed through by Wilson which imposed stiff penalties for antiwar activities and allowed the federal government to ban treasonous material from being sent through the mail. Anyone who might utter, print, write or publish any disloyal profane, scurrilous or abusive language about the U.S. or the military.
Sedition Act of 1918
added to Espionage Act to cover "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the American form of government, the Constitution, the flag, or the armed forces.
Schenk vs. US
US Supreme Court decision upholding the war time espionage and sedition acts in the opinion he wrote for the case, justice Oliver Wendell Holmes set the now familiar clear and present danger standard
American Expeditionary Force was the first American ground troops to reach the European front. Commanded by Pershing, they began arriving in France in the summer of 1917.
law passed by Congress in 1917 that required all men from ages 21 to 30 to register for the military draft.
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
Treaty of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
Clemenceau of France, Lloyd George of Britain, Orlando of Italy, Wilson of USA
League of Nations
An organization of nations formed after World War I to promote cooperation and peace.
a system in which a group of nations acts as one to preserve the peace of all
the ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will
payment for damages after a war, As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.
terms set by the national government that states must meet whether or not they accept federal grants
Rejection of Treaty of Versailles
US didn't want foreign policy decided by another
Women in WW1
patriotism (total war) & high wages drew women into labor force - "male" jobs. most crucial work was making shells (bombs) and explosives
headed the Food Aministration Speaker's Bureau, The daughter of suffragist Elizabeth Cady Stanton who headed the Food Administration's Speakers' Bureau.
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
Congressional Elections of 1918
The 66th Congress, under President Wilson. He begged people to elect Democrats so that they could support his foreign policy initiatives in Congress, but the public rejected him. The senate had 47 Democrats and 49 Republicans and the House had 216 Democrats, 210 Republicans and 6 others.
Intense fear of communism and other politically radical ideas
A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities
The Seattle General Strike was a general work stoppage by over 65,000 workers in Seattle Washington. They were fighting for higher wages. Even though the strike was non-violent and didnt last long, people thought it they were radicals, and it was the first real panic of the Red Scare