Forms of government
A form of government is the structural setup of government based on a particular organising principle. It defines the relationship among key branches of government.
3 main forms of government in Pacific Asia?
Unity of Powers
The idea of unity of powers does not recognized the divisibility of government power. It rejects the idea that government branches should be made antagonistic to one another, sees state institutions as being functionally dependent on one another, and argues that they ought to support each other and collaborate for overall state purposes. The idea has strongly influenced the organization of govt in traditional states, contemporary people's republic states and those non-pluralist states during the cold war in pacific asia
Rule of Law
Govt authority is exercised according to law. Law is above govt authority.
State as unified, organic whole.-- theory sees the state as a unified and organic whole, where individuals and sectors of society are integral parts of the state. It envisages a mutually dependent relationship between state and society, central and local governments and among branches of government.
Unity of Powers (2 principles, 3 examples)
No divisibility of government (separate powers)
Different state functions should collaborate, not compete
- Traditional states, non-pluralist states, people's republics,
Rule by law
Government is above the law --> Myanmar (is the new consitution leading towards rule of law?)
3 branches of government?
3 contrasting organising principles of governments?
Separation of powers (USA)
Fusion of powers (NZ)
Unity of powers
Fusion of powers
Interconnectedness of executive and legislature. Less checks/balance but there is still a key separation of powers
Presidential systems (2)
the executive and the legislative branches are separated
The president (3)
is both the head of state and the head of government
is usually, though not always, elected through a popular vote
represents the state and controls executive powers
Examples of presidential systems? (2)
Philippenes, South Korea
South Korean constraints placed from the 1987 constitution? Why?(3)
Allowed one term in office (5 years)
President appoints prime minister, but requires consent of National Assembly
National Assembly powers
Key principle of the Parliamentary system?
The best 'check and balance' on the allocation and use of public power is to place executive power in the hands of those who constitute the majority and to make this executive responsible to the whole parliament
Place of parliament in the parliamentary system?
The extent of executive dominance of a parliamentary system is no less than a presidential system
Parliamentary systems Japan
1955 system had executive dominating parliament.
Diet does not see itself as supreme in the system
The system of 'checks and balances' is weak in Japan
Semi-presidential or mixed dual executive system
Executive power is shared, if not contested, between
the branches of government
Contains elements of both the presidential and
Lean heavily towards the presidential system
Two groups of Semi-presidential systems?
1. Taiwan and East Timor
2. The people's republics
Taiwan semi-presidential system? (origins and components?)
the ROC lost its mainland territory in the Chinese Civil War to
Communist forces who founded the PRC on that territory in 1949, and the ROC relocated its government to the island of Taiwan, which composes most of its current territory.
ROC constitution (1947)
5 Branches of government
National assembly was the highest form of state power - abolished in 2005
President neither reports or is accountable to the legislative
Prime Minster is head of government and reports to legislature
Republic of China
China's semi-presidential system?
President is head of state - shares power with the prime minister
They act on behalf of the national congress.
North Korea & Myanmar not parliamentary systems or presidential systems. But what are 3 important things to note about them?
Similar to the system under Mao and Deng in China where power lies in the hands of an individual; recent changes in Myanmar
In what key way is Brunei not a parliamentary system?
Constitutionally it is a parliamentary system but the rule of the sultan is above parliament
High number of what types of governmental systems in Pacific Asia?
Presidential and semi-presidential
General trends in governmental systems in Pacific Asia? (5)
Concentration of power in executive
State institutions less competitive with each other
Influence of communist and traditional orders sitll felt
State functions controlled by ruling party
State authority is integrated and centralised