Genetics Multiple Choice Questions

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BIO 300 Test 2 multiple choice questions

Two- and three-factor testcrosses can be used to _____________ and _____________.
a. map gene loci
b. screen recessive mutants
c. determine genotypes
d. determine parental origin
e. identify double-crossover events

a. map gene loci and c. determine genotypes

Linked genes ____________.
a. assort randomly
b. can crossover and recombine
c. are allelic
d. co-segregate
e. will segregate independently

d. co-segregate

Genetic distances within a given linkage group
a. cannot exceed 100 cM.
b. are dependent upon crossover frequencies between paired, non-sister chromatids.
c. are measured in centiMorgans.
d. cannot be determined.
e. A, B, and C
f. B, C, and D
g. B and C

g. B and C

Syntenic genes are
a. allelic.
b. dominant.
c. on different chromosomes.
d. on the same chromosome.
e. recessive lethal.

d. on the same chromosome

FISH stands for
a. fluorescent in situ hybridization.
b. first induced strand hybrid.
c. F1 insertion segment homolog.
d. flanking insertion sequence hybrid.
e. fluorescent insertion segment hybrid.

a. fluorescent in situ hybridization

Lod scores measure
a. the relatedness of two individuals.
b. the length of genetic distances.
c. how often double crossovers occur.
d. the length of a linkage group.
e. the likelihood of linkage between genes.

e. the likelihood of linkage between genes

Compared to a two-point testcross, a three-point testcross
a. is more accurate.
b. is less accurate.
c. is equally accurate.
d. measures different things.
e. is possible only in yeast.

a. is more accurate

Compared to a physical map, a genetic map
a. is more accurate.
b. is less accurate.
c. is equally accurate.
d. measures different things.
e. cannot be made for humans.

d. measures different things

Crossing over occurs during
a. interphase.
b. prophase.
c. metaphase.
d. anaphase.
e. telophase.

b. prophase

Bacterial cells containing an F plasmid that has acquired bacterial chromosomal genes are called
a. F+.
b. F′.
c. F-.
d. Hfr.

b. F'

A bacterial cell transfers chromosomal genes to F- cells, but it rarely causes them to become F+. The bacterial cell is
a. Hfr.
b. lysogenic.
c. auxtrophic.
d. lytic.

a. Hfr

The E. coli genome contains roughly
a. 500,000 nucleotide pairs and 500 genes.
b. 500,000 nucleotide pairs and 1000 genes.
c. 5,000,000 nucleotide pairs and 1000 genes.
d. 5,000,000 nucleotide pairs and 5000 genes.
e. 10,000,000 nucleotide pairs and 10,000 genes.

d. 5,000,000 nucleotide pairs and 5000 genes

leu- bacteria are mixed in a flask with leu+ bacteria, and soon all bacteria are leu+. However, if the leu- cells are on one side of a U-tube and the leu+ cells are on the other, the leu- cells do not become prototrophic. This suggests
a. conjugation.
b. transduction.
c. transformation.

a. conjugation

Two different strains of a mutant phage infect a single bacterium. One phage strain is d- and the other is e-. Some of the progeny phages are genotype d+e+, and some are d-e-. What genetic phenomenon does this demonstrate?
a. complementation
b. specialized transduction
c. generalized transduction
d. recombination

d. recombination

Two different strains of a mutant phage infect a single bacterium. One phage strain is d-e+ and the other is d+e-. The coinfected phages produce the wild-type phenotype in the bacterium: one phage supplies the wild-type gene product from a d+ allele, and the other supplies the wild-type gene product from the e+ allele. What genetic phenomenon does this demonstrate?
a. complementation
b. specialized transduction
c. generalized transduction
d. recombination

a. complementation

What does the enzyme reverse transcriptase do?
a. Using the amino acid sequence of a protein as a template, it makes an RNA molecule.
b. Using RNA as a template, it makes a DNA molecule.
c. Using RNA as a template, it makes an RNA molecule.
d. Using DNA as a template, it makes an RNA molecule.

b. using RNA as a template, it makes a DNA molecule

Cotransformation between two genes is more likely if they are:
a. close to one another.
b. far apart from one another.
c. both next to the F factor.
d. both oriented in the same direction.

a. close to one another

Cholera is caused by a
a. retrovirus.
b. prion.
c. bacterium that produces a toxin originally from an integrated virus.

c. bacterium that produces a toxin originally from an integrated virus.

You perform interrupted-mating experiments on three Hfr strains (A, B, and C). Genes are transferred (from last to first) in the following order from each strain: strain A, thi-his-gal-lac-pro; strain B, azi-leu-thr-thi-his; strain C, lac-gal-his-thi-thr. How are the F factors in these strains oriented?
a. A and B are cooriented.
b. B and C are cooriented.
c. A and C are cooriented.
d. All of them are cooriented.

a. A and B are cooriented.

A bacterium of genotype a+b+c+d+ is the donor in a cotransformation mapping. The recipient is a-b-c-d-. Data from the transformed cells are shown below. What is the order of the genes?

a+ and b+ 2
a+ and c+ 0
a+ and d+ 5
b+ and c+ 5
b+ and d+ 0
c+ and d+ 0

a. a c b d
b. a d c b
c. c b a d
d. c a d b

c. c b a d

The figure below shows the results of interrupted-mating experiments with 3 different Hfr strains. What is the order of the genes, starting with C?


(this is the figure)
Hfr strain Order of transfer
1 A, B, E, D, F
2 D, F, C, G, A
3 D, E, B, A, G


a. C, G, A, D, F, B, E
b. C, F, D, B, A, E, G
c. C, B, E, D, F, G, A
d. C, G, A, B, E, D, F
e. C, D, F, G, A, B, E

d. C, G, A, B, E, D, F

The complete set of chromosomes possessed by an organism is called a ____________.
a. polyploid
b. chromatin complement
c. karyotype
d. genome
e. diploid

c. karyotype

___________ can cause genes to move from one linkage group to another.
a. Inversions
b. Deletions
c. X-rays
d. Translocations
e. Unequal crossing over

d. Translocations

The inheritance of both chromosomes from the same parent is a condition called ___________.
a. displaced duplication
b. uniparental disomy
c. tandem duplication
d. unbalanced polymorphism
e. nondisjunction

b. uniparental disomy

Approximately ______ of the gametes produced by an individual heterozygous for a translocation will be nonviable.
a. all
b. half
c. none
d. a quarter
e. an eighth

b. half

Matching:
18. Turner syndrome
19. Translocation
20. Mosiac
21. Polyploidy
22. Inversion
23. Triploid
24. Fragile sites
25. Tetrasomy
26. Translocation
27. Nullisomy

a. extra chromosome sets
b. mitotic nondisjunction
c. 2n - 2
d. chromosome breakage
e. alternate segregation
f. 2n + 2
g. sterile
h. adjacent-1 segregation
i. 45, X
j. ABCDEF ==> ABEDCF

(input answer as: a, b, c, etc..)

i, e, b, a, j, g, d, f, h, c

Fill in the blank:
The concept that genetic information passes from DNA to RNA to protein is called the ___________.

central dogma

Fill in the blank:
A nitrogenous base bonded to the 1′ carbon of a ribose or deoxyribose is a ________ ?

nucleoside

Fill in the blank:
The bonds that connect nucleotides in a strand are called _______________ ?

phosphodiester bonds

Fill in the blank:
With respect to their 3′ and 5′ ends, the two polynucleotide chains of a double-stranded DNA molecule are __________?

antiparallel

Match the researcher in the left column with his or her significant discovery in the right column.

16. Albert Kossel
17. Fred Griffith
18. Oswald Avery
19. Rosalind Franklin

a. used X-ray diffraction to examine the structure of DNA
b. determined that DNA contains four different nitrogenous bases
c. found that "the transforming principle" is destroyed by enzymes that hydrolyze DNA
d. found that the phosphorus-containing components are the genetic material of phages
e. discovered "the transforming principle" that could genetically alter bacteria

(input answer as: a, b, c, etc)

b, e, c, a

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of A-form DNA compared to B- or Z-form DNA?
a. has right-handed helixes
b. has 11 bases per turn
c. is long and narrow
d. has 50% purines, 50% pyrimidines
e. has a 32.7° rotation per base pair

c. is long and narrow

Which of these sequences could form a hairpin?
a. 5′ GGGGTTTTCCCC 3′
b. 5′ AAAAAAAAAAAA 3′
c. 5′ ACACACACACAC 3′
d. 5′ TTTTTTCCCCCC 3′

a. 5' GGGGTTTTCCCC 3'

Which of these sequences, if paired with its complementary strand, would be a palindrome?
a. 5′ CCCCCC 3′
b. 5′ CCCGGG 3′
c. 5′ CTGCTG 3′
d. 5′ TCCCCT 3′

b. 5' CCCGGG 3'

If a DNA molecule is 30% cytosine (C), what is the percentage of guanine (G)?
a. 30%
b. 60%
c. 35%
d. 70%

a. 30%

If a DNA molecule of 50 base pairs contains 15 cytosine bases (C), how many thymine bases will it have?
a. 10
b. 15
c. 30
d. 35
e. 60

d. 35

It is estimated that transposable elements compose approximately what percent of the human genome:
a. <1
b. 1
c. 10
d. 50
e. 99

d. 50

Copies of a gene that arose by gene duplication are part of a gene _______.
a. complex
b. family
c. tandemoplex
d. structure
e. chromosome

b. family

Transposition can involve exchange of DNA sequences and recombination, which often leads to DNA ________.
a. acetylation
b. rearrangements
c. condensation
d. repair
e. degradation

b. rearrangements

Match each number with the closest type of DNA:
Note: terms are used more than once

22. Alu sequence
23. telomeres
24. gene-encoding sequence
25. controlling elements
26. genes for tRNA
27. genes for ribosomal RNA
28. centromeres

a. moderately repetitive DNA
b. highly repetitive DNA
c. short interspersed elements
d. long interspersed elements
e. unique-sequence DNA

(input answer as: a, b, c, d)

c, b, e, b, a, a, b

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