Who were the FIRST EUROPEANS to make contact with North America?
Where did the Vikings come from?
What type of ship did the Vikings develop?
Raided countries and developed large trading networks.
What did the Vikings do for a living?
Where did the Vikings found a settlement?
What year did the Vikings find their settlement?
Viking Erik the Red
Who left Iceland to settle Greenland?
Who's the son of Erik the Red?
West Norway to Greenland
What was Leif Eriksson's original sailing destination?
The Labrador Peninsula
Instead, where did Leif Eriksson land?
Prince Henry the Navigator
In the early 1400's, a Portuguese man lead the way in world exploration. Who was he?
Built an observatory, founded a school of navigation, financed mapmakers' and shipbuilders' research, paid for an expedition to explore the west coast of Africa.
What were Prince Henry the Navigator's achievements?
Asian Spices and Converting the peoples to Christianity.
What was the reason for the Europeans exploring Asia?
God, Glory, and Gold
What are the 3 G's?
What is a device that enables navigators to learn their ship's location by charting the position of the stars?
They were smaller, lighter, and easier to steer
Why were the new Portuguese ships better than the old ships?
What are Portuguese ships with triangular sails?
What nationality was Bartolomeu Dias?
Vasco da Gama
Who lead an expedition around the Cape of Good Hope?
From where did da Gama leave for his expedition?
Where did da Gama arrive after his expedition?
Gold, Ivory, and Slaves
Portuguese sailors explored the west coast of Africa and negotiated for ____, _____, and ______.
Increased warfare among kingdoms and broke up many families
How did the slave trade devastate the African communities?
What are the 3 G's?
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
Who did Columbus ask to pay for his expedition?
August 4, 1492
When did Columbus's 3 ships set sail?
The Nina, the Pinta, the Santa Maria
What were the names of Columbus's ships?
October 12, 1492
When did Columbus's journey from the Canary Islands end?
September 6, 1492
When did Columbus leave the Canary Islands?
What did Columbus name the first island he reached? (After the Canary Islands)
What does San Salvador mean?
After his 3rd voyage
When was Columbus arrested?
What island did Columbus found and name (after San Salvador)?
When did Columbus come back to Spain, only to die 2 years later?
What did Columbus's voyages create between the European countries?
Where was Pope Alexander VI originally from?
Pope Alexander VI
Who issued the Line of Demarcation?
Treaty of Tordesillas
What moved the Line of Demarcation 800 miles further west?
An imaginary line that divided the Atlantic Ocean. Spain could claim all land west of the line.
What is the Line of Demarcation?
Who lead a Spanish fleet to the coast of South America?
Vasco Nunes de Balboa
Who was the first to see the Pacific Ocean and viewed it from the top of a mountain?
Who (Portuguese) set out with a Spanish fleet to sail down the east coast of South America?
In a battle with native peoples.
How was Magellan killed?
In the Philippines
Where was Magellan killed?
To go all the way around the globe.
What does circumnavigate mean?
What did was brought from America in the Columbian Exchange?
What was brought from Europe to America in the Columbian Exchange?
Soldiers who led military expeditions in the Americas
What are Conquistadors?
Who left Cuba to sail to Mexico after hearing of a wealthy land ruled by Moctezuma II?
What was Moctezuma's capital city?
Superior weapons, help from the Aztec's enemies, and an Indian woman named Malintzin
What helped Cortes defeat the Aztect even with the minority in soldiers?
Smallpox and other diseases
What quickened the fall of the Aztec empire after Cortes's attack?
Which conquistador set sail after hearing rumors of the Inca cities in the Andes?
From the Pacific coast from present-day Chile to northern Ecuador
Where was the Incan territory?
Less than 40 men
How many men were in Pizarro's army?
How did Pizarro defeat the Inca?
When the Spanish began to settle their vast empire, what did they call it?
Jews, Muslims and Non-Christians
Which religious peoples were not allowed to settle in New Spain?
Through a system of royal officials
How did Spain rule its American empire?
Council of the Indies
What was formed in 1525 to govern the Americas from Spain?
the Viceroyalty of Peru
Who governed most of South America?
the Viceroyalty of New Spain
Who governed all the Spanish territories of Central America, Mexico, and the Southern part of the US
What served as trading posts and centers of government?
Spanish-built military bases to protect towns and missions.
El Camino Real
"The Royal Road"
Who built El Camino Real?
To connect scattered communities of New Spain
Why was El Camino Real built?
Mexico City to Santa Fe
From where to where did El Camino Real run?
Juan Ponce de Leon
Who landed on Puerto Rico in 1508?
What city did Ponce de Leon found?
What did Ponce de Leon find on Puerto Rico?
What did Ponce de Leon find in 1512?
Ponce de Leon
Who founded Florida in 1512?
He failed to colonize the area
Ponce de Leon got royal permission to colonize Florida, but...
Hernando de Soto
Who was sent to explore the coastal region of the Gulf of Mexico?
Tampa Bay, Florida
Where did Hernando de Soto land instead?
Georgia and the Carolinas
Hernando lead his men north towards...
De Soto turned west and crossed the ___________ __________.
the Mississippi River
What river did Hernando de Soto found?
1528- Joined Panfilo de Naraez to explore North America.
Galveston Island, Texas
Present day location of where De Vaca's boat shipwrecked.
De Vaca and 3 other men
Who survived De Vaca's boat shipwrecking?
One survivor was a Moroccan-born Slave named __________.
The survivors were captured and enslaved by Native American groups living in the area.
What happened after the shipwrecking?
How many years until De Vaca and his men escaped captivity?
Who did Estevanico's slaveholder sell him to after their journey ended?
By whose hands was Estevanico killed?
Francisco Vasques de Coronado
Who set out to explore North America after hearing about the Seven Cities of Gold?
On his journey, what landmark did de Coronado discover?
To reward settlers for their service to the Crown
Why did Spain establish the encomienda system?
It gives settlers the right to tax local Native Americans or to make them work.
What did the encomienda system give settlers?
Large farms that grew just one kind of crop.
Vast Spanish estates in Central and South America.
Bartolome de Las Casas
A Spanish priest who said that the Spanish should try to convert the Native Americans to Christianity by showing them love, gentleness and kindness.
In 1517, a German priest publicly criticized the Roman Catholic Church. Who was he?
A religious movement that began in small German towns but quickly spread to most of Europe.
Reformers who protested some of the Catholic Church's practices.
A machine that produces printed copies using the movable type.
Conflicts between Catholics and Protestants took place throughout Europe and often lead to _____ ___.
King Henry VIII
In 1534, this English monarch founded the Church of England (the Anglican Church)
King Philip II
In the late 1500's, this Spanish monarch used Spain's wealth to lead a Catholic Reformation against the Protestants.
A huge fleet of warships ment the end the English plans.
The month/year when England defeated the larger Spanish Armada.
What did all of the gold and silver Spain collected cause?
A water route through North America that would allow ships to sail from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
Italian sailor who propositioned to the King of England grant him a charter if he paid for his own expedition. (to find the Northwest Passage)
Giovanni da Verrazano
In 1524, France sent an Italian captain to seek the Northwest Passage.
A French sailor who attempted to find the Northwest Passage.
The Dutch tried to find the Northwest Passage by hiring _____ ______.
Hudson sailed to present-day ___ _____ in 1609.
Hudson reached a strait that he hoped would lead to the Pacific. Instead it led to a huge bay, later named ______ ___.
England decided to set up a permanent settlement in North America in which period of time?
Sir Walter Raleigh
The man who received a charter to start a colony.
A document giving someone permission to start a colony.
France started building their settlements in Florida but ___ _______ drove out the French.
A natural Resistance
Colonial Economic Structure
Plantation agriculture was a mainstay of the....
The Middle Passage
The voyage across the Atlantic Ocean that enslaved Africans were forced to endure.
One out of Six
___ out of ___ Africans died during the Middle Passage.
Enslaved slaves scattered.
About 12 Million
How many slaves were imported to America?