What is the science in psychology?
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes, encompassing not just what people do but also their biological activities, feelings, perceptions, memory, reasoning, and thoughts.
Behavioral genetics studies the inheritance of traits related to behavior.
Behavioral neuroscience examines the biological basis of behavior.
deals with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of psychological disorders.
Unites the areas of biopsychology and clinical psychology, focusing on the relationship between biological factors and psychological disorders.
focuses on the study of higher mental processes.
Focuses primarily on educational, social, and carrer adjustment problems.
Investigates the similarities and differences in psychological functioning in and across various cultures and ethnic groups.
Examines how people grow and change from the moment of conception through death.
Is concerned with teaching and learning processes, such as the relationship between motivation and school performance.
Considers the relationship between people and their physical environment.
Considers how behaviour is influenced by our genetic inheritance from our ancestors.
Studies the process of sensing, perceiving, learning, and thinking about the world.
Focuses on legal issues, such as determining the accuracy of witness memories.
Explores the relationship between psychological factors and physical ailments or disease.
Is concerned with the psychology of the workplace.
Focuses om the consistency in people's behavior over time and the traits that differentiate one person from another.
Focuses on assessing large-scale programs, such as the pre school Headstart program, to determine whether they are effective in meeting their goals.
Psychology of women
Focuses on issue such as discrimination against women and the causes of violence against women.
is devoted to counseling children in elementary and secondary schools who have academic or emotional problems.
Is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and actions are affected by others.
Apples psychology to athletic activity and excercise.
What is structuralism?
Wundt's approach which focuses on uncovering the fundamental components of conciousness, thinking, and other types of mental states and activites.
What is introspection?
This procedure to study the structure of the mind has subjects describe in deatail what they are experiencing when they are exposed to a stimulus.
What is functionalism?
An early approach to psychology that concentrated on what the mind does - the functions of mental activity - and the role of behavior in allowing people to adapt to their environments.
What is Gestalt psychology?
An approach to psychology that focuses on the organization of perception and thinking
View behavior from the perspective of biological functioning.
Believes behavior is motivated by inner, unconcious forced over which a person has little control.
Focuses on observable behavior.
Examines how people understand and think about the world.
Contends that people can control their behavior and that they naturally try to reach their full potential.
What are the 5 different perspectives?
What are the positions take by the psychologists of the Neuroscience perspective?
What are the positions take by the psychologists of the psychodynamic perspective?
What are the positions take by the psychologists of the behavioral perspective?
-Individual differences and Universal principles
What are the positions take by the psychologists of the cognitive perspective?
-Nature and Nurture
-Conscious and unconscious
What are the positions take by the psychologists of the humanistic perspective?
What are the origins of psychology?
Willhelm Wundt laid the foundation of psychology in 1879, when he opened his lab in Germany.
What are theories?
Broad explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest.
What is the scientific method?
The approach used by psychologists to systematically acquire knowledge and increase understanding.
What is operational definition?
The translation of a hypothesis into specific, testable procedures that can be measured and observed.
What is naturalistic observation?
An investigator simply observes some naturally occurring behavior and does not make a change in the situation.
What are variables?
Behaviors, events, or other characteristics that can change or vary in some way.
What is correlational research?
research in which the relationship btwn two sets of variables is examines to determine whether they are associated.
What is the independent variable?
The variable that is manipulated by an experimenter.
What is the dependent variable?
The variable that is measured and is expected to change as a result of changes caused by the experimenter's manipulation of the independent variable.
What are the advantages of descriptive and correlational research?
Offers insight into the relationship between variables.
What are the disadvantages of descriptive and correlational research?
Cannot determine causality.
What are the advantages of archival research?
Ease of data collection because data already exists.
What are the disadvantages of archival research?
dependent on availability of data.
What are the advantages of naturalistic observation?
Provides a sample of people in their natural environment.
What are the disadvantages of naturalistic observations?
Cannot control the "natural habitat" being observed.
What are the advantages of survey research?
A small sample can be used to infer attitudes and behavior of a larger population.
What are the disadvantages of survey research?
Sample may not be representative of the larger populations; participants may not provide accurate responses to survey questions.
What are the advantages of a case study?
Provides a thorough, in-depth undersanding of participants.
What are the disadvantages of a case study?
Results may not be generalizable beyond the sample.
What is replicated research?
Research that is repeated, sometimes using other procedures, settings, and groups of participants, to increase confidence in prior findings.
What is informed consent?
A document signed by participants affirming that htey have been told the basic outlines of the study and are aware of what their participation will involve.
What is experimental bias?
Factors what distort how the independent variable affects the dependent variable in an experiment.
What is a placebo?
A false treatmnet, such a a pill, or "drug," or other substance w/o any significant chemical properties or active ingredient.
Natural selection requires what?
both heritable variation and differential reproductive success
Natural selection tends to act at which level?
Discovery science is based on what?
At which point is an investigator most likely to use deductive reasoning?
in establishing a test of a hypothesis
A hypothesis must be testable to be scientifically valid. Being testable means that...
some conceivable observation could prove the hypothesis incorrect