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sediment

matter deposited by some natural process

clastic

capable of being taken apart

deposition

the act of deposing someone

lithification

The process that converts sediments into solid rock by compaction or cementation.

cementation

The process in which minerals precipitate into pore spaces between sediment grains and bind sediments together to form rock.

bedding

layering visible in rocks that results from the settling of particles during deposition

graded bedding

sediments of different sizes and shapes settle to different levels

cross-bedding

structure in which relatively thin layers are inclined at an angle to the main bedding. Formed by currents of wind or water.

clastic sedimentary rocks

formed from mechanically weathered sediments and rock fragments

porosity

the property of being porous

evaporite

the sediment that is left after the evaporation of seawater

regional metamorphism

a change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to changes in temperature and pressure over a large area, generally as a result of tectonic forces.

contact metamorphism

a change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to contact with magma.

hydrothermal metamorphism

occurs when very hot water reacts with rock, altering its mineralogy and chemistry

foliated

(especially of metamorphic rock) having thin leaflike layers or strata

nonfoliated

The texture of metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are not arranged in planes or bands

porphyroblast

A large crystal surrounded by a much finer grained matrix of other minerals in a metamorphic rock.

rock cycle

sequence of events in which rocks are formed, destroyed, altered, and reformed by geological processes

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