skin infections

Created by rheasofsunshine 

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Acne: microbe

Propionibacterium acnes

Acne: epidemiology

normal bacterial microbiota, up to 85% of adolescents suffer at some point

Acne: pathogenesis

hair follicle infection that spreads into surrounding tissue, generating an abscess

Acne: complications

skin disfigurement (scars)

Acne: treatment

tetracycline, blue light therapy, oral contraceptives, vitamin A derivitives, Accutane?

Acne: preventioon

decrease sebum accumulation by thorough personal hygiene and depress bacterial growth with topical peroxide-containing medications

Impetigo: microbe

Staphylococcus aureus and/or Streptococcus pyogenes

Impetigo: epidemiology

bacterial disease highly contagious in children
"weeping"

Impetigo: pathogenesis

superficial infection leads to formation of thin walled abscesses that look like blisters or "weeping" lesions with scabs

Impetigo: complications

blood poisoning (toxemia or septicemia)

Impetigo: treatment

bacitracin salve or other antimicrobial agents resistant to bacterial enzymes that destroy penicillins

Impetigo: prevention

personal hygiene, avoid contact with lesions on others

Furuncle (boil): microbe

Staphylcoccus aureus

Furuncle (boil):epidemioogy

normal microbiota in up to 30% normal humans

Furuncle (boil): pathogenesis

infected skin follicle leads to formation of an abscess

Furuncle (boil): complications

multiple abscesses (carbuncles), blood poisoning (toxemia) due to systemic distribution of toxin or bacteria, osteomyelitis

Furuncle (boil): treatment

"lance" abscess, treat with bacitracin, vancomycin, or other antimicrobial angents that are resistant to bacterial enzymes that destroy penicillins

Furuncle (boil): prevention

personal hygiene, avoid contact with boils on others

Necrotizing Fasciitis: microbe

Streptococcus pyogenes

Necrotizing Fasciitis: epidemiology

bacterium, there were 500-1500 cases in US in 1996, 20% fatal

Necrotizing Fasciitis: pathogenesis

rapidly spreading infection that leads to destruction of tissues at sites of infection
"flesh-eating disease"

Necrotizing Fasciitis: complications

formation of abscesses throughout the body and blood poisoning (toxemia or septicemia)

Necrotizing Fasciitis: treatment

penicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, surgery

Necrotizing Fasciitis: prevention

personal hygiene

Candidiasis: microbe

Candida albicans

Candidiasis: epidemiology

dimorphic fungus is in normal microbiota, likelihood of developing disease is enhanced by chronic skin moisture, especially in immunosuppressed individuals

Candidiasis: pathogenesis

as candida grows on skin, induces a bright red inflammation, blister-like superficial lesions or more severe lesions all of which are related to hypersensitivity, sometimes around mouth

Candidiasis: complications

systemic infection, fulminating disease, death

Candidiasis treatment

Clotrimazole, miconazole, or nystatin for skin infection, oral ketoconazole for systemic infections

Candidiasis: prevention

avoid excess skin moisture, immunosuppression

Tineas (ringworm): microbe

Epidermophyton, microsporium, Trichophyton

Tineas (ringworm): epidemiology

dermatophytic fungi, prevalent in athletes

Tineas (ringworm): pathogenesis

superficial skin infection causes granulomas on head/scalp, groin, body, or foot

Tineas (ringworm): treatment

lamisil (terbinafine-HCl cream), shampoo with selenium, ketoconazole or itraconazole, griseofulvin for chronic infections

Tineas (ringworm): prevention

avoid lesions on others

Sporotrichosis: microbe

Sporothrix schenckii

Sporotrichosis: epidemiology

spores of this fungus in soil are transmitted by splinters, sphagnum moss, thorns, hay

Sporotrichosis: pathogenesis

skin lesions (painless pink bumps), develop at site of infection after 3-12 weeks, develop into ulcers that don't heal, enter lymphatics and move uparm

Sporotrichosis: complications

dissemination to lungs, joints, CNS, and can cause serious illness

Sporotrichosis:treatment

KI, itraconazole, amphotericin B

Sporotrichosis: prevention

avoid contact with contaminated soil, splinters, thorns, etc

Warts (verruca vulgaris): microbe

Human Papilloma viruses (HPV)

Warts (verruca vulgaris): pathogenesis

skin disinfureation fom chronic benign tumors

Warts (verruca vulgaris): treatment

remove wart by surgery or by chemicals such as salicylic acid

warts (verruca vulgaris): prevention

avoid contact with warts on others

Herpes: microbe

Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1)

Herpes: epidemiology

transmitted by direct contact

Herpes: pathogenesis

reurrent chronic lesions (blisters) on face, fingers, hands, become latent in local nerves and exhibits recurrence during periods of stress... "to creep"

Herpes: treatment

acyclovir shortens episode, slows reurrence, valtrex works better

Herpes: prevention

avoid contact with skin sores on others

Leprosy (Hansen's disease): microbe

Mycobacterium leprae

Leprosy (Hansen's diease): epidemiology

transmission unknown, about 600 cases known in US mostly by immigrants and travelers

Leprosy (Hansen's disease): pathogenesis

slowly developing lumpy or discolored lesions lead to sensory nerve damage and tissue destruction

Leprosy (Hansen's disease): complications

no awareness of cuts, burns, etc, leads to gangrene causing loss of digits or limbs, skin disfiguration, liver kidney and spleen damage causes death

Leprosy (Hansen's disease): treatment

long term multi drug therapy (MDT) using combo of dapsone clofazimine and rifamipin

Leprosy (Hansen's disease): prevention

avoid contact with skin lesions of lepers

Ebola Fever: microbe

Ebola virus

Ebola fever: epidemiology

transmitted by direct contact with infected blood, organs, secretions, semen, or contaminated needles, most prevalent in Africa

Ebola fever: pathogenesis

sudden malaise, fever, muscle pain, headache, sore throat followed by vomiting, diarrhea, rash, heavy bleeding for 2-21 days

ebola fever: complications

massive damage to kidney liver spleen, moderate damage to pancreas CNS heart, massive hemorrhage from all body orfices, leading to 50-90% death of cases

Ebola fever: treatment

TLC, systemic relief

Ebola Fever: Prevention

avoid contact with infected blood or body secretions

Gangrene (myonecrosis): microbe

Clostridium perfringens

Gangrene (myonecrosis): epidemiology

wound infected with endospores of bacterium from soil, clothing, etc

Gangrene (myonecrosis): pathogenesis

superficial infection leads to cellulitis then myonecrosis due to toxins

gangrene (myonecrosis): complications

death due to CNS damage by toxins

Gangrene (myonecrosis): treatment

debridement, penicillin, hyperbaric chamber (exposure to very high concentrations of oxygen)

gangrene (myonecrosis): prevention

early treatment

Tetanus: microbe

Clostridium tetani

Tetanus: epidemiology

endospores of this bacterium enter through animal bites, scratches, puncture wounds, fewer than 10 cases a year

Tetanus: pathogenesis

toxin (tetanospasmin) causes CNS damage (4-21 days)

tetanus: complications

respiratory failure causes death (70%)

tetanus: treatment

antitoxin, penicillin, valium, barbituates (minimize damage)

tetanus: prevention

antitoxin, vaccine (DPT vaccine and boosters)

Antrax: microbe

Bacillus antracis

Anthrax: epidemiology

an endopore-forming soil bacterium, this zoonotic disease primarily affects grazing animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats, but can be transmitted to humans by contact with the endospores by skin wounds or inhalation, disease considered good candidate for biological warfare

Anthrax: pathogenesis

as endospores germinate the vegetative bacterial cells begin to produce a necrotizing toxin that causes development of pustular lesions called eschars characterized by necrotic centers that will eventually be filled with black fluid

Anthrax: complications

fulminating septicemia that frequently leads to death, especially from the pulmonary form of the disease

Anthrax: treatment

penicillin... cipro

Antrax: prevention

vacine, avoid contact with endospore contaminated articles

Rabies: microbe

Rabies Virus

Rabies: epidemiology

transmitted via bites of infected animals, vampire legend?

Rabies: pathogenesis

CNS damage leads to death in 2-8 weeks

Rabies: treatment

TLC

Rabies:prevention

vaccine (can prevent onset of disease after infection)

Plague: microbe

Yersinia Pestis

Plague: epidemiology

bacterium transmitte by rat fleas, endemic, 10-20 huan cases a year in US

Plague: pathogenesis

infects and kills macrophages, whole body damaged, causing fever and massive blood clotting, which leads to shock, which may cause death

Plague: treatment

streptomycin or tetracycline

Plague: prevention

vaccine, control rats and fleas, avoid contact

Lyme Disease: microbe

Borrelia burgdorferi

Lyme Disease: epidemioogy

spread by nymph stage of deer ticks, takes 36 hours to infect with enough bacteria, reservoirs are white tailed deer and white footed mice, 15,000 cases reported each year, most frequently tick borne disease

Lyme Disease: pathogenesis

expanding ring shaped rash (erythema migrans) at site of tick bite... acompanied by flu like symptoms and skin lesions, facial paralysis, forgetfulness, chronic systemic infection leads to arthritis, heart inflammation, neurological abnormals, nerve demyelination may lead to multiple sclerosis like symptoms

Lyme Disease: treatment

ceftin, penicillin, or tetracycline, long term therapy for chronic cases

Lyme Disease: prevention

vaccine, but removed, avoid tick bite and protect pets

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: microbe

Rickettsia rickettsii

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: epidemiology

bacterium transmitted by dog ticks, 600-80 new cases each year

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever:pathogenesis

damage to blood vessels causes fever, accompanied by skin rash, headache, muscle pains

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: complications

damage to blood vessels throughout body leads to impaired function of kidneys, liver, lungs, CNS, and gastrointestinal tract, these can lead to death

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: treatment

tetracycline, or chlramphenicol plus symptomatic relief and supportive care for complications

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: prevention

vaccine for high risk people, avoid contact with ticks

Encephailtis: microbe

Encephalitis virus

Encephalitis: epidemiology

transmitted by mosquitos, reservoirs are other animals, most prevalent in Summer and fall, West Nile Fever is emerging

Encephalitis: pathogenesis

mosquito injects virus into bloodstream, virus replicates in CNS causing fever and headache, vomiting, stiff back and neck, drowsiness, tremors, loss of coordination, convulsions, seizures

Encephalitis: complications

coma and death

Encephalitis: treatment

TLC, management of symptoms and complications, treatment for West Nile Fever

Encephalitis: prevention

vaccines, mosquito repellent use, mosquito control

Dengue Fever: microbe

Dengue Fever Virus

Dengue Fever: epidemiology

transmitted by mosquitos, endemic in Africa, Carribean, Central and South America, Southeast Asia, and Australia, 100 cases per year

Dengue Fever: pathogenesis

mosquito injects virus into blodstream, this rarely fatal disease is characterized by sudden onset of high fever and rash together with severe headache and severe muscle, joint, and eye pain

Dengue Fever: complications

hemorrhagic fever with bleeding from gastrointestinal and other mucosal membrane orifices of body which can lead to shock and death

Dengue Fever: treatment

TLC, fluid replacement in hemorrhagic fever cases

Dengue Fever: prevention

Vaccines, mosquito repellent use, mosquito control

Yellow Fever: microbe

Yellow Fever Virus

Yellow Fever: epidemiology

transmitted by mosquitoes, occurs mostly in tropical and subtropical countries in Africa and South America where monkeys are reservoir

Yellow Fever: pathogenesis

mosquito injects virus into bloodstream where virus replicates in liver, intestines, and gingival tissues

Yellow Fever: complications

include death in up to 50% of cases

Yellow Fever: treatment

TLC

Yellow Fever: Prevention

Vaccine mosquito repellent use, mosquito control

Malaria: microbe

Plasmodium

Malaria: epidemiology

protozoan is injected into bloodstream by female mosquitoes
350-500 million people infected, 1 million people die each year

Malaria: pathogenesis

infection of liver and erythrocytes, causes damage leading to chronic recurent chills followed by high fever, sweating, headache, nausea, splenomegaly

Malaria: complications

red blood cell loss causes anemia, black urine, accumulation of cell fragments in small blood vessels causes cerebral hemorrhage, kidney failure, heart attack, liver damage, death

Malaria: treatment

quinine derivatives

Malaria: prevention

vaccine, avoid contact with female mosquito

Afican Sleeping Sickness: microbe

Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense or Trypanosoma brucei gambiense

African Sleeping Sickeness: epidemioogy

protozoan injected by tsetse fly in Africa, disease limits spread of people in equatorial Africa

African Sleeping Sickness: pathogenesis

tsetse fly bite painful and swollen, lesion like syphilitic chancere develops at site, systemic infection via bloodstream develops causing fever, severe headaches, paralysis, wasting, and coma (death)

African Sleeping Sickness: treatment

pentamidine and suramine used at 1st state, melarsoprol or eflornithine is 2nd stage

African Sleeping Sickness; prevention

avoid contact with tsetse fly

Schistosomiasis: microbe

Schistosoma spp.

Schistosomiasis: epidemiology

Fluke is transmitted by direct conact with its ccercarieae which are generate in certain species of snails aafter infection by miracidia, released from intestines, endemic

Schistosomiasis: pathogenesi

cercariae burrow through skin, infect blood stream, infect liver and mature into flukes and from eggs, respond by granulma formation and causes damage to lungs, bladder, liver, and intestines

Schistosomiasis: complications

chronic infection which causes ongoing liver damage

Schistosomiasis: treatment

praziquantel or oxiaminiquine

Schistosomiasis: prevention

avoid contact with water containing human sewage, snails especially in Asia, middle east, or Carribean islands

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