systems for representing thoughts, feelings, knowledge and communicating them to others - left hemisphere
whats sets humans apart from other species?
the creative and flexible use of symbols
5 years of age during language development
children have mastered the basic structure of their native language - spoken or manually signed
using language involves
language comprehension and language production
understanding what others say, sign or write
refers to actually speaking, signing or writing to others
the components of language
learning the sounds, sound patterns, its specific words, and ways in which the language allows words to be combined
using the finite sets of words in our vocabulary and putting together an infinite number of sentences and express an infinite number of ideas
required competencies for learning language
phonological, semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic development
the acquisition of knowledge about phonemes, the elementary units of sound that distinguish meaning
learning the system for expressing meaning in a language, beginning with morphemes, the smallest unit of meaning in a language
learning the syntax or rules for combining words
acquiring knowledge of how language is used, which includes understanding a variety of conversational conventions
adults, unlike children, also have some understanding of the properties and function of language
example of metalinguistic knowledge
knowing that only certain word combinations are acceptable as sentences
What is required for language?
only achieved by humans - experience with other humans using language for communication
a species-specific behavior and species-universal
only humans acquire...
a communication system with the complexity, structure and generativity of language
trained to use signs or other symbols after concentrated effect by humans, but theres little evidence that they have acquired syntax
what does language processing involve?
a substantial degree of functional localization in the brain
The left hemisphere shows some specialization for language in?
infancy, although the degree of hemispheric specialization for language increases with age
brain damage can result in?
speech production (near motor cortex)
speech comprehension (near auditory cortex)
nonverbal (tone, gesture, motion, space, facial expression, volume)
critical period for language develop
earlier years, children must be exposed to other people using language - spoken or signed
what happens to language between age 5 and puberty?
language acquisition becomes much more difficult and ultimately less successful
more than half of the world's children are exposed to more than one language
bilingual children perform better on a variety of what than monolingual?
hemispheric differences in language processing
adults who learned a second language at 1 to 3 show the normal pattern of greater left hemisphere brain activity in a test of grammatical knowledge and those who learned the language later show increased right hemisphere activity
learning english as a second language
immersion into english vs. gradual increases in the amount of instruction
test of the critical-period hypothesis
test people before and after 7
infant-directed talk (IDT)
the distinctive mode of speech that adults adopt when talking to babies and very young children; right brain generated
process of language acquisition
comprehending what other people communicate to you and producing language of your own
fetuses are sensitive to prosody
characteristic rhythm, tempo, cadence, melody, international patterns and so forth (right brain generated)
the perception of speech sounds as belonging to discrete categories
element of prosody
certain sounds are more likely to appear together than others
their own name
5 months - show the "cocktail party effect"
when do infants begin producing drawn out vowel sounds
6 to 8 weeks
utterances are generated by?
right brain structures and systems in service of emotional communication
repeating strings of sounds comprising a consonant followed by a vowel
when does babbling occur?
6 to 10 months
sign language - hand movements differ from infants exposed to spoken language
apparent in games like "give and take"
established when baby and parents are looking at and reacting to the same thing in the world around them
helps establish joint attention among infants older than 9 months of age, and by age 2, children use pointing to deliberately direct the attention of another person
when do infants readily learn to recognize new words and remember them for weeks?
7 to 8 months
problem of reference
associating words and meaning - 6 months
when do most infants produce their first words?
between 10-15 months
period of one-word utterances
using a given word in a broader context than is appropriate
when can children being producing simple sentences
when is the spurt in vocabulary growth?
style of acquisition
set of strategies that young children enlist in beginning to speak
referential or analytic style
analyze the speech stream into individual phonetic elements and words
expressive or holistic style
overall sound of language, its rhythmic and intonational patterns (right brain)
process of rapidly learning a new word simply from the contrastive use of a familiar and unfamiliar word
whole object assumption
novel word to refer to a whole object not a part
mutual exclusivity assumption
given entity will have one one name
aspects of the social context used for word learning
novel words appear to help infer their meaning
children use grammatical structure of whole sentences to figure out meaning
when do children combine words into simple senteces?
end of second year
first sentences - two word utterances - nonessential elemts are missing
what happens at 2 and a half years?
more than one clause
what is the strongest support for the idea that young children are learning grammatical rules?
their production of word endings
speech errors in which children treat irregular forms of words as if they were regular
content of each child's turn having little or nothing to do with what the other child has just said
when do the extent to which children talk about their past increase
over the preschool period - 5 years
theoretical issues in language development
nativist, interactionist, connectionist
using a language requires a set of highly abstract, unconscious rules - a universal grammar that is innate and common; cognitive abilities that support language development is specific to language
human brain contains an innate, self-contained language module that is separate from other aspects of cognitive functioning
why is nativist criticized
focuses exclusively on syntax and ignores the communicative role of a language
speech evolved from gesture
virtually everything about language development is influenced by its communicative function; communicating with other people
what supports the interactionist view
sensitivity of infants and young children to host of pragmatic cues and their ability to use even quite subtle aspects of the social context to interpret utterances
downfall of interactionist?
limited attention to syntactic development
language development is result of gradual strengthening of connections in neural network
speech-perception and statistical learning research
nonlinguistic symbols and development
using symbols as information & drawing
understanding that the artifact is represented mentally in two ways at the same time, both as real object and as a symbol for something other than itself
outstrips their motor and planing capability
early drawings of humans