← Envirothon Grasses Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All ACID SOIL Soil with a reaction somewhat below pH 7.0 (Usually below pH 6.6) ; more technically, a soil having a preponderance of hydrogen ions over hydroxyl ions in solution. AFTERMATH Recovery growth of forage plants after harvesting by either animal or machine. ALKALI SOIL Soil containing excessive amounts of alkaline salts, usually sodium carbonate; pH of 8.5 or higher. ALKALINE SOIL Soil with a pH above 7.0 ANNUAL Plant that completes its life cycle from seed in one (year) growing season. ANNUAL, WINTER Plant species that initiates growth in the fall, lives overwinter, and dies after producing seed the following season. ANTHESIS The state of expansion in a flower; full bloom. AURICLE An ear-like lobe, process, or appendage. AXIL The angle between a branch or leaf and the stem from which it grows. BAND-SEEDING Placing forage crop seed in rows directly above but not in contact with a band of fertilizer. BASAL NODE The node or joint at the base of the stem. BIENNIAL Plant that normally requires two years to reach maturity, producing leaves in the first year. blooming and producing seed in the second year, and then dying. BLADE The leaf of a grass or cereal plant. BLOAT Excessive accumulation of gas in the rumen of animals. BOOT STAGE Growth stage of grasses at the time the head is enclosed by the sheath of the uppermost leaf. BRACT A leaf from the axil of which a flower arises. CEREAL FORAGE Cereal (small grain) crop harvested when immature for either hay. silage, green chop or as pasturage. CHLOROSIS Yellowing or blanching of leaves and other parts of chlorophyll-bearing plants; usually caused by a mineral deficiency. CLONE Individual plant propagated vegetatively by rooting portions from a single original plant. COMPANION CROP Crop sown with another crop, usually a small gain with which a forage crop is seeded. Preferred to the term "nurse crop. " COOL-SEASON GRASS Grass species adapted to rapid growth during the cool moist periods of the year; usually dormant during hot weather or injured by it. CORM A short, bulb-like, underground upright stem. CROWN The junction of the stem and the root in a grass or legume plant. CULM The jointed stem of a grass plant. COUMARIN White. crystalline compound (C9H6O2) with a vanilla like odor; gives sweetclover its distinctive odor. COUMESTROL Estrogenic factor occurring naturally in forage crops, especially in ladino clover, strawberry clover, and alfalfa. CROSS INOCULATION Inoculation of one legume species by the symbiotic bacteria from another. CROWN Base of the stem where roots arise. CULM Jointed stem of a grass. CULTIVAR (derived from "cultivated variety") International term denoting an assemblage of cultivated plants that is clearly distinguishable by any characteristics and that. when reproduced, sexually or asexually, retains its distinguishing characters. In the U.S. "variety" is synonymous with "cultivar." DECREASER Forage or range plant that gradually is replaced by other species in the stand. DICOUMAROL Chemical compound produced micro biologically from coumarin; found in spoiled sweetclover hay. DIPLOID Having two sets of chromosomes; body tissues of higher plants and animals ordinarily are diploid. ESTROGENIC Pertaining to any hormonal substance capable of producing estrus in a female animal. FIELD CAPACITY (water) Amount of moisture remaining in soil after free water (gravitational) has drained away. FLORET A small flower: one of a cluster of small flowers which form the head of a plant such as clover. FORAGE Herbaceous plants or plant parts fed to domestic animals (generally the term refers to such material as pasturage, hay, silage, dehy. and green chop in contrast to less digestible plant material known as roughage: to graze. FORAGE QUALITY Characteristics that make forage valuable to animals as a source of nutrients. Considered by some as synonymous with feeding value and nutritive value. GLABROUS Smooth, having a surface without hairs or projections. GLUME The chaffy bract, one of two bracts of the base of the spikelet in grasses. GRASS Botanically, any plant of the family Gramineae. Generally, in grassland agriculture the term does not include cereals when grown for grain but. does include forage species of legumes often grown in association with grasses. GRASS TETANY (Hypomagnesia) Condition of cattle and sheep marked by tetanic staggers. convulsions, coma. and frequently death: characterized by a low level of blood magnesium. GREEN CHOP Mechanically harvested forage fed to animals while it is fresh and succulent. Preferred to "soiling," "zero grazing," or "green feed." GREEN MANURE Crop grown and plowed under to improve the soil. HAYLAGE Product resulting form ensiling forage with about 45% moisture, in the absence of oxygen. HERBAGE Leaves. stems. and other succulent parts of forage plants upon which animals feed. See also Forage. HUMUS The organic fraction of soil in which decomposition is so far advanced that its original form is not distinguishable. HYBRID Product of a cross between individuals of unlike genetic constitution or makeup. HYDROCYANIC ACID (HCN) Poison, also called prussic acid, produced as a glucoside by several plant species. especially sorghums and common sudangrass. INCREASER Forage plant on the range that spreads under existing management. INFLORESCENCE Flowering part of a plant. INOCULATION Addition of effective rhizobia (bacteria) to legume seed prior to planting for the purpose of promoting nitrogen fixation. INTERNODE The portion of a plant stem between its joints or nodes. LEGUME Plant member of the family Leguminosae, with the characteristic of forming nitrogen-fixing nodules on its roots, in this way making use of atmospheric nitrogen. LEMMA The lower of the two bracts enclosing the flower in the spikelet of grasses. MEADOW Area covered with grasses and/or legumes grown primarily or hay. MULCH Any non-living plant material that forms a covering on the soil surface. NATIVE GRASS Grass species indigenous to an area; not introduced from another environment or area. NEUTRAL SOIL Neither acid nor alkaline, with a pH of 7 or (practically) between 6.6 and 7.3. NODE Joint of a culm or stem. NODULE Tubercle, particularly such as is formed on legume roots by the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Rhizobium.See also Inoculate. NURSE CROP See Companion Crop. NUTRIENT, PLANT Element essential to plant growth used in the elaboration of food and tissue. NUTRITIVE VALUE Characterizes a forage or feed as to its chemical composition, digestibility, and nature of digested products. ORGANIC MATTER Chemical compounds of carbon combined with other chemical elements and generally manufactured in the life process of plants and animals. Most organic compounds are a source of food for bacteria and are usually combustible. PALATABILITY Plant characteristics eliciting a choice between two or more forages or parts of the same forage, conditioned by the animal and environmental factors that stimulate intake response. PALEA The upper bract which, with the lemma, encloses the flower in grasses. PANICLE Inflorescence with a main stem and subdivided clusters; may be compact as in timothy or a pyramidal loosely branches flower cluster such as fescue. PASTURAGE Vegetation on which animals graze, including grasses or grasslike plants. legumes, forbs, and shrubs. PASTURE Fenced area of domesticated forages. usually improved. on which animals are grazed: to graze. See also Range. PASTURE, PERMANENT Pasture of perennial or self-seeding annual plants maintained through several years for grazing. PASTURE RENOVATION Improvement of a pasture by the partial removal or complete destruction of the sod, plus liming, fertilizing. seeding. and weed control as may be required to establish desirable forage plants. PEDUNCLE The primary stalk supporting either a cluster 9r a solitary flower. PETIOLE The slender stem which supports the blade of a foliage leaf; the leaf stalk. pH The pH scale is the measure of acidity and alkalinity; pH 7 is neutral: pH above 7 represents alkalinity and below, acidity. The scale is logarithmic; a solution with a pH of 4 is 100 times as acid as one with a pH of 6 and 10 times as acid as one with a pH of 5. PHOTOSYNTHESIS Process by which carbohydrates are produced from CO2 and water, chloroplasts or chlorophyll-bearing cell granules. and the energy of sunlight. PRUSSIC ACID See Hydrocyanic acid. PURE LIVE SEED (PLS) Percentage of the content of a seed lot that is pure and viable; determined by multiplying the percentage of pure seed by the percentage of viable seed (germination percentage) and dividing by 100. (Example: 98% pure seed times 90% germination divided by 100 = 88.2% pure live seed.) RACEME The type of inflorescence in which the spikelets are arranged singly along a common main axis. or rachis. RACHIS The axis of a spikelet or receme. RANGE Land and native vegetation that is predominately grasses. grasslike plants, forbs. or shrubs suitable for grazing or browsing and present in sufficient quantity to justify grazing use. RANGE MANAGEMENT Producing maximum sustained use of range forage without jeopardy to other resources or uses of the land. RESEEDING CULTIVAR perpetuates itself by volunteering from shattered seed; usually made possible because of a high percentage of hard seed or seed with a high dormancy. RHIZOBIA Species of bacteria that live in symbiotic relationship with legumes in nodules on their roots; carry on the fixation of free or atmospheric nitrogen in forms used as nutrients be the host legumes. RHIZOME Underground root-like stem. usually horizontal and which produces new shoots and roots at the nodes or buds. RUMEN First compartment of the stomach of a ruminant or cud chewing animal. SALINE SOIL Soil containing an excess of soluble salts, but no excessively alkaline; pH less than 8.5. SCARIFICATION Procedure of mechanically scarring the seed coat of "hard" or impermeable seed to permit the rapid absorption o water to make germination possible. SEED, HARD With a seed coat impervious to the water or oxygen necessary for germination; common in legume seed and mad germinable by scarification. SILAGE Forage preserved in a succulent condition by partial fermentation in an oxygen-free atmosphere, or silo; the plant material generally has a moisture content about 65%. SOD Top few centimeters of soil permeated by and held together with grass roots or grass-legume roots. SOIL TILTH Physical condition of a soil in respect to its fitness for good plant growth. SPIKELET One of the small few-flowered bracted spikes which make up the compound inflorescence of grasses -consisting of two glumes and one or more florets. STIPULE One of the pair of appendages borne at the base of the leaf in many plants. STOLON Trailing or creeping stem at or below the soil surface capable of rooting and sending up new shoots at the nodes. SWARD Sward, turf. and sod may seem nearly synonymous. Sward usually refers to the grassy surface of a pasture. lawn or playing field; vegetation may be of pure or mixed species turf and sod refer to the layer of earth filled with gras roots as well as to the surface. SYMBIOSIS The living together of dissimilar organisms in a mutually advantageous partnership. TILLER Branch or shoot originating at a basal node in grasses. TILTH Physical condition of a soil in respect to its fitness for plant growth. TOP-DRESSING Application of fertilizer anytime after establishment of a crop. VARIETY See Cultivar. VEGETATIVE Term used to designate stem and leaf development in contrast to flower and seed development. WARM-SEASON GRASS A grass species that makes its major growth during the warmer part of the year. Preferred to "hot weather."