the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
precise statements of the procedures (operations) used to define independent and dependent variables research variables
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
A self correcting process for asking questions and observing nature's answer.
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
involves observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate or control the situation
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation.)
The perception of a relationship where none exists
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect of some behavior or mental process
An experimental procedure in which both the research participant and the research staff are ignorant about whether the participant have recieved the treatment or the placebo.
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
The condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
the procedure of assigning subjects to the experimental and control conditions by chance in order to minimize preexisting differences between the groups
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the effect being studied
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independant variable.
the most frequently occuring score in a distribution
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and tradition shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
An inert substance or condition that is administered as a test of whether an experimental subjects who mistakenly thinkls a treatment.
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.