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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Gastrula
  2. Allantois
  3. From cleavage to blastula
  4. Fetus
  5. Maturation
  1. a the embryo develops into the adult through the process of maturation, which involves cell division, growth, and differentiation; in some animals, maturation is suspended in a temporary state; for example, arthropods have a pupal stage; mammals develop uninterrupted; differentiation of cells is complete when all organs reach adult form
  2. b an embryonic stage in animal development encompassing the formation of three layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
  3. c (membrane of eggs) this sac-like structure is involved in respiration and excretion and contains numerous blood vessels to transport O2, CO2, water, salt, and nitrogenous wastes
  4. d the first complete cleavage of the zygote occurs approximately 32 hours after fertilization; the second cleavage occrus after 60 hours, and the third cleavage after approximately 72 hours, at which point the eight-celled embryo reaches the uterus; as cell division continues, a solid ball of embryonic cell, known as teh morula, is formed; blastulation begins when teh morula develops a fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoel, which by the fourth day becomes a hollow sphere of cells called the blastula; the blatula is the stage of teh embryo that implants in the uterus
  5. e a developing human from the 9th week of gestation until birth; has all the major structures of an adult

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. member of the phylum chordata, aimals that at some point during their development have a notochord; a dorsal, hollow nerve cord; pharyngeal slits or clefts; and a muscular, post-anal tail
  2. childbirth is accomplished by labor, a series of strong unterine contractions; labor can be divided into three distinct stages; in teh first stage, the cervix thins out and dilates, and the amniotic sac ruptures, releasing tis fluids; during this time, contractions are relatively mild; the second stage is characterized by rapid contractions, resulting in the birth of the baby, followed by the cutting of the umbilical cord; during the final stage, the uterus contracts, expelling the placenta and the umbilical cord
  3. the placenta and the umbilical cord are outgrowths of the four extra-embryonic membranes formed during development: the amnion, chorion, allantois, and yolk sac; the amnion is a thin, tough membrane containing a watery fluid called amniotic fluid; amniotic fluid acts as a shock absorber of external pressure and localized pressure from the uterine contraction during labor; placenta formation begins with the chorion, a membrane that completely surrounds the amnion; a third membrane, the allantois, develops as an outpocketing of the gut; the blood vessels of the allantoid wall enlarge and become the umbilical vessels, which will connect teh fetus to teh developing placenta; the yolk sac, the site of early developmental blood vessels, becomes associated with the umbilical vessels
  4. the growing fetus receives oxygen directly from its mother through a specialized cirulatory system; this system not only supplies oxygen and nutrients to the fetus but removes carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes as well; the two components of this system are the placentaa and the umbilical cord, which both develop in teh first few weeks after fertilization
  5. the middle primary germ layer in an animal embryo; develops into the notochord, the lining of the coelom, muscle, skeleton, gonads, kidneys, and most of the circulatory system in species that have thses structures

5 True/False questions

  1. Chorion(membrane of eggs) lines the inside of the shell; it is a moist membrane that permits gas exchance

          

  2. Notochorda longitudinal, flexible rod made of tightly packed mesodermal cells that runs along the anterior-posterior axis of a chordate (member of the phylum chordata) in the dorsal part of teh body

          

  3. Fertilizationan egg can be fertilized within 12-24 hours after ovulation; fertilization occurs in the lateral, widest portion of the oviduct when sperm traveling from the vagina encounter an egg; if more than one egg is fertilized, fraternal twins may be conceived

          

  4. Organogenesiseggs develop in women and sperm develop in men, which results in the possibility of reproduction occuring

          

  5. Umbilical cordThe cord that connects the developing embryo or fetus with the placenta and through which run the umbilical arteries and vein. The matrix (the substance) of the umbilical cord is known as Wharton's jelly and is a rich source of stem cells. At birth the umbilical cord measures about 20 inches (50 cm) in length. The cord is clamped and cut after birth and its residual tip forms the umbilicus (bellybutton).

          

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