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Vertebrate Embryology Test

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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. Allantois
  2. Endoderm
  3. Growth
  4. Gastrula
  5. Internal development
  1. a (membrane of eggs) this sac-like structure is involved in respiration and excretion and contains numerous blood vessels to transport O2, CO2, water, salt, and nitrogenous wastes
  2. b follows the neurulation process; includes organogenesis, growth, and gametogenesis
  3. c the innermost of the three primary germ layers in animal embryos; lines the archeenteron and gives rise to the liver, pancreas, lungs, and the lining of the digestive tract in species that have these structures
  4. d an embryonic stage in animal development encompassing the formation of three layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
  5. e the organs increase in size, which is a continual process from infancy to childhood to adulthood

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. member of the phylum chordata, aimals that at some point during their development have a notochord; a dorsal, hollow nerve cord; pharyngeal slits or clefts; and a muscular, post-anal tail
  2. pregnancy; the state of carrying developing young within the female reproductive tract; human pregnancy is about 9 months (266 days) and can be subdivided into three trimesters
  3. the embryo implants outside the uterus; for example, in the fallopian tube; an embryo cannot be maintained for long outside of teh uterus; it will abort spntaneously, and hemorrhaging will follow
  4. the fetus does a tremendous amount of growing; it begins to move around in teh amniotic fluid; its face appears human, and its toes and fingers elongate; by the end of the sixth month, the fetus is 30-36 cm long
  5. each embryonic development is characterized by a series of rapid mitotic divisions knows as cleavage; these divisions lead to an increase in cell number without a corresponding growth in cell protoplasm (i.e., the total volume of cytoplasm remains constant); thus, cleavage results in progressively smaller cells, with an increasing ratio of nuclear-to-cytoplasmic material; cleavage also increases the surface-to-volum ration of each cell, thereby improving gas and nutrient exchange; this early developmental process consists of a series of very rapid, synchronous mitotic divisions that converts the zygote's single large cell into a solid ball of cells, known as teh morula, then into the blastula

5 True/False Questions

  1. Organogenesiseggs develop in women and sperm develop in men, which results in the possibility of reproduction occuring


  2. Embryologythe study of the development of a unicellular zygote into a complete, multicellular organism; in the course of nine months, a unicellular human zygote undergoes cell division, cellular differentiation, and morphogenesis in preparation for life outside teh uterus; much of what is known about mammalian development stems from the study of less complex organisms such as sea urchins and frogs


  3. Hemorrhagebleeding or the abnormal flow of blood


  4. Blastocoela hollow ball of cells that marks the end of the cleavage stage during early embryonic development in animals


  5. Amnion(membrane of eggs) lines the inside of the shell; it is a moist membrane that permits gas exchance


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