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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. Fertilization
  2. Embryology
  3. Second trimester
  4. Chorion
  5. Hemorrhage
  1. a the fetus does a tremendous amount of growing; it begins to move around in teh amniotic fluid; its face appears human, and its toes and fingers elongate; by the end of the sixth month, the fetus is 30-36 cm long
  2. b bleeding or the abnormal flow of blood
  3. c (membrane of eggs) lines the inside of the shell; it is a moist membrane that permits gas exchance
  4. d the study of the development of a unicellular zygote into a complete, multicellular organism; in the course of nine months, a unicellular human zygote undergoes cell division, cellular differentiation, and morphogenesis in preparation for life outside teh uterus; much of what is known about mammalian development stems from the study of less complex organisms such as sea urchins and frogs
  5. e an egg can be fertilized within 12-24 hours after ovulation; fertilization occurs in the lateral, widest portion of the oviduct when sperm traveling from the vagina encounter an egg; if more than one egg is fertilized, fraternal twins may be conceived

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. a tube of infolded ectodermal cells that runs along the anterior-posterior axis of a vertebrate, just dorsal to the notochord; it will give rise to teh nervous system
  2. in vertebrates, groups of cells along the sides of the neural tube where it pinches off from the ectoderm; the cells migrate to various parts of teh embryo and form pigment cells in the skin and parts of the skull, teeth, adrenal glands, and peripheral nervous system
  3. the growing fetus receives oxygen directly from its mother through a specialized cirulatory system; this system not only supplies oxygen and nutrients to the fetus but removes carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes as well; the two components of this system are the placentaa and the umbilical cord, which both develop in teh first few weeks after fertilization
  4. the innermost of the three primary germ layers in animal embryos; lines the archeenteron and gives rise to the liver, pancreas, lungs, and the lining of the digestive tract in species that have these structures
  5. a developing human from the 9th week of gestation until birth; has all the major structures of an adult

5 True/False Questions

  1. Maturationthe embryo develops into the adult through the process of maturation, which involves cell division, growth, and differentiation; in some animals, maturation is suspended in a temporary state; for example, arthropods have a pupal stage; mammals develop uninterrupted; differentiation of cells is complete when all organs reach adult form

          

  2. From cleavage to blastulathe first complete cleavage of the zygote occurs approximately 32 hours after fertilization; the second cleavage occrus after 60 hours, and the third cleavage after approximately 72 hours, at which point the eight-celled embryo reaches the uterus; as cell division continues, a solid ball of embryonic cell, known as teh morula, is formed; blastulation begins when teh morula develops a fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoel, which by the fourth day becomes a hollow sphere of cells called the blastula; the blatula is the stage of teh embryo that implants in the uterus

          

  3. Ectopic pregnancythe outermost of the three primary germ layers in animal embryos; gives rise to the outer covering and, in some phyla, the nervous system, inner ear, and lense of the eye

          

  4. Neurulationin animal development, a series of cell and tissue movements in which the blastula-stage embryo folds inwards, producing a three-layered embryo, the gastrula

          

  5. Determinate cleavagefter the initial cell division the fate of the resulting daughter cells is not determined -- each has the potent ial to develop into an entire organism. Sometimes this occurs; resulting individuals are genetically identical (in humans, they are called identical twins)

          

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