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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Yolk sac
  2. From cleavage to blastula
  3. Second trimester
  4. Mesoderm
  5. Fertilization
  1. a the fetus does a tremendous amount of growing; it begins to move around in teh amniotic fluid; its face appears human, and its toes and fingers elongate; by the end of the sixth month, the fetus is 30-36 cm long
  2. b the middle primary germ layer in an animal embryo; develops into the notochord, the lining of the coelom, muscle, skeleton, gonads, kidneys, and most of the circulatory system in species that have thses structures
  3. c the first complete cleavage of the zygote occurs approximately 32 hours after fertilization; the second cleavage occrus after 60 hours, and the third cleavage after approximately 72 hours, at which point the eight-celled embryo reaches the uterus; as cell division continues, a solid ball of embryonic cell, known as teh morula, is formed; blastulation begins when teh morula develops a fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoel, which by the fourth day becomes a hollow sphere of cells called the blastula; the blatula is the stage of teh embryo that implants in the uterus
  4. d an egg can be fertilized within 12-24 hours after ovulation; fertilization occurs in the lateral, widest portion of the oviduct when sperm traveling from the vagina encounter an egg; if more than one egg is fertilized, fraternal twins may be conceived
  5. e (membrane of eggs) encloses the yolk; blood vessels in the yolk sac transfer food to the developing embryo

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. in vertebrates, groups of cells along the sides of the neural tube where it pinches off from the ectoderm; the cells migrate to various parts of teh embryo and form pigment cells in the skin and parts of the skull, teeth, adrenal glands, and peripheral nervous system
  2. in animal development, a series of cell and tissue movements in which the blastula-stage embryo folds inwards, producing a three-layered embryo, the gastrula
  3. The cord that connects the developing embryo or fetus with the placenta and through which run the umbilical arteries and vein. The matrix (the substance) of the umbilical cord is known as Wharton's jelly and is a rich source of stem cells. At birth the umbilical cord measures about 20 inches (50 cm) in length. The cord is clamped and cut after birth and its residual tip forms the umbilicus (bellybutton).
  4. each embryonic development is characterized by a series of rapid mitotic divisions knows as cleavage; these divisions lead to an increase in cell number without a corresponding growth in cell protoplasm (i.e., the total volume of cytoplasm remains constant); thus, cleavage results in progressively smaller cells, with an increasing ratio of nuclear-to-cytoplasmic material; cleavage also increases the surface-to-volum ration of each cell, thereby improving gas and nutrient exchange; this early developmental process consists of a series of very rapid, synchronous mitotic divisions that converts the zygote's single large cell into a solid ball of cells, known as teh morula, then into the blastula
  5. early development within the body of the mother protects the young; certain animals, including marsupials and some tropical fish, develop in the mother without a placenta; without a placenta, exchange of food and oxygen between teh young and the mother is limited; the young may be born very early in development

5 True/False questions

  1. Allantoisa hollow ball of cells that marks the end of the cleavage stage during early embryonic development in animals

          

  2. Gestationin animal development, a series of cell and tissue movements in which the blastula-stage embryo folds inwards, producing a three-layered embryo, the gastrula

          

  3. Placenta and Umbilical cord formationThe cord that connects the developing embryo or fetus with the placenta and through which run the umbilical arteries and vein. The matrix (the substance) of the umbilical cord is known as Wharton's jelly and is a rich source of stem cells. At birth the umbilical cord measures about 20 inches (50 cm) in length. The cord is clamped and cut after birth and its residual tip forms the umbilicus (bellybutton).

          

  4. Neurulationby the end of gastrulation, regions of the germ layers begin to develop into a rudimentary nervous system; this process is known as neurulation; a rod of mesodermal cells, called teh notochord, develops along the longitudinal axis just under the dorsal layer of the ectoderm; the notochord has an inductive effect on the overlying ectoderm, causing it to bend inward and form a groove along the dorsal surface of teh embryo; the dorsal ectoderm folds on either side of the groove; these neural folds grow upwards and finally fuse, forming a closed tube; this is the neural tube, which give rise to the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system); once the neural tube is formed, it detaches from teh seurface ectoderm; the cells at the tip of each neural fold are called neural crest cells; these cells migrate laterally and give rise to many components of the peripheral nervous system, including the sensory ganglia, autonomic ganglia, adrenal medulla, and schwann cells

          

  5. Chordate(membrane of eggs) lines the inside of the shell; it is a moist membrane that permits gas exchance

          

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