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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. Third trimester
  2. Gestation
  3. Neural tube
  4. Chordate
  5. Yolk sac
  1. a member of the phylum chordata, aimals that at some point during their development have a notochord; a dorsal, hollow nerve cord; pharyngeal slits or clefts; and a muscular, post-anal tail
  2. b pregnancy; the state of carrying developing young within the female reproductive tract; human pregnancy is about 9 months (266 days) and can be subdivided into three trimesters
  3. c the seventh and eighth months are characterized by continued rapid growth and further brain development; during the ninth month, antibodies are transported by highly selective active transport from teh mother to the fetus for protection against foreign matter; the growth rate slows and the fetus become less active, as it has less room to move about
  4. d (membrane of eggs) encloses the yolk; blood vessels in the yolk sac transfer food to the developing embryo
  5. e a tube of infolded ectodermal cells that runs along the anterior-posterior axis of a vertebrate, just dorsal to the notochord; it will give rise to teh nervous system

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. during the first weeks, the major organs begin to develop; the heart begins to beat at approximately 22 days, and soon afterwards, the eyes, gonads, limbs, and liver start to form; by five weeks the embryo is 10mm in lenght; by six weeks the embryo has grown to 15mm; the cartilaginous skeleton begins to turn into bone by the seventh week; by the end of eight weeks, most of teh organs have formed, the brain is fairly developed, and the embryo is referred to as a fetus; at teh end of teh third month, the fetus is about 9 cm long
  2. the fluid-filled cavity that forms in the center of a blastula
  3. the early development of many animals occurs outside of the mother's body, on land or in water; fish and amphibians lay eggs that are fertilized externally in the water; the embryo develops within the egg, feeding on nutrients stored in the yolk; reptiles, bird, and some mammals (like the duck-billed platypus) develop externally on land; fertillization occurs internally, and the fertilized egg is then laid; eggs provide protection for teh developing embryo; the eggs also include the following embryonic membranes: chorion, allantois, amnion, yolk sac
  4. a structure in the pregnant uterus for nourishing a vivaparous fetus with the mother's blood supply; formed from the uterine lining and the embryonic membranes
  5. the body organs begin to form; in this process, the cells interact, differentiate, change physical shape, proliferate, and migrate

5 True/False Questions

  1. Chorion(membrane of eggs) this membrane encloses the amniotic fluid; amniotic fluid provides an aqueous environment that protects the developing embryo from shock


  2. Internal developmentfollows the neurulation process; includes organogenesis, growth, and gametogenesis


  3. From cleavage to blastulathe first complete cleavage of the zygote occurs approximately 32 hours after fertilization; the second cleavage occrus after 60 hours, and the third cleavage after approximately 72 hours, at which point the eight-celled embryo reaches the uterus; as cell division continues, a solid ball of embryonic cell, known as teh morula, is formed; blastulation begins when teh morula develops a fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoel, which by the fourth day becomes a hollow sphere of cells called the blastula; the blatula is the stage of teh embryo that implants in the uterus


  4. Mesodermthe innermost of the three primary germ layers in animal embryos; lines the archeenteron and gives rise to the liver, pancreas, lungs, and the lining of the digestive tract in species that have these structures


  5. Indeterminate cleavagefter the initial cell division the fate of the resulting daughter cells is not determined -- each has the potent ial to develop into an entire organism. Sometimes this occurs; resulting individuals are genetically identical (in humans, they are called identical twins)


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