The mental activities involved in acquiring, retaining, and using knowledge.
The manipulation of mental representations of information in order to draw inferences and conclusions.
A mental representation of objects or events that are not physically present. One way we think.
A mental category of objects or ideas based on properties they share. One way we think.
A mental category that is formed by learning the rules or features that define it.
A concept that formed as a result of everyday experience rather than by logically determined whether an object or event fits a specific set of rules.
The most typical instance of a particular concept.
Individual instances of a concept or category, held in memory.
Trial and Error
A problem-solving strategy that involves attempting different solutions and eliminating those that don't work.
Single Strategy Model
One decision-making strategy. In order to simplify the choice among many alternatives, you base your decision on a single feature.
A decision-making strategy. Systematically evaluating the important features of each alternative.
Elimination by Aspects Model
A decision making-strategy. Evaluating all the alternatives one characteristic at a time, typically starting with the feature considered most important.
A measurement of intelligence in which an individual's mental level is expressed in terms of the average abilities of a given age group.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
A measure of general intelligence derived by comparing an individual's score with the scores of others in the same age group.
Cognitive psychologist who developed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test.
A test designed to measure a person's level of knowledge, skill, or accomplishment in a particular area.
A test designed to assess a person's capacity to benefit from education or training.
The administration of a test to produce consistent results when administered on repeated occasions under similar circumstances.
Normal Curve (AKA Normal Distribution)
A bell-shaped distribution of individual differences in a normal population in which most scores cluster around the average score.
The ability of a test to produce consistent results when administered on repeated occasions under similar circumstances.
Believed that a factor called General Intelligence (AKA g factor), was responsible for the overall performance on tests of mental ability.
Disagreed with Spearman's notion that intelligence is a single, general mental capacity. Instead, he believed that there were seven different" primary mental abilities", each a relatively independent element of intelligence.
Expanded upon Thurstone's basic notion of intelligence as different mental abilities that operate independently.
Agreed with Gardner that intelligence is a much broader quality than is reflected in the narrow range of mental abilities measured by a conventional IQ test.
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Robert Sternberg's theory that there are three distinct forms of intelligence: analytic, creative, and practical.
Behavioral syndrome associated with differences in brain functioning and sensory responses, and characterized by impaired social interaction, impaired verbal and non-verbal communication skills, repetitive or odd motor behaviors, and highly restricted interests and routines.
Behavioral syndrome characterized by varying degrees of difficulty in social and conversational skills, but normal-to-above-average intelligence and language development; often accompanied by obsessive preoccupation with particular interests or routines.
Disorder characterized by intellectual function that is significantly below average, usually defined as a measured IQ of 70 or below, and that is caused by brain injury, disease, or a genetic disorder.
The percentage of variation within a given population that is due to heredity.