1. What problem does the speaker describe in the opening paragraphs of A Modest Proposal? What solution to the problem does the speaker propose?
-poor mothers breed children in Ireland
-these babies become burdens to society as they grow up because they become beggars
-babies should be eaten (cooked as a delicacy), and their skin should be used as clothing (baby bottom gloves; raise them like livestock (it's okay they're just papist)
2. What does the speaker in A Modest Proposal claim to be advantages to his proposal? What objection to the proposal does the speaker think readers might raise? How does he answer this objection?
-it would greatly lessen the number of Papists
-poor people could make money off their kids
-the nation's stock will increase 50,000 pounds per annum and a new dish will be introduced to all gentlemen of fortune
-constant breeders will be rid of their "charges" (children) after the first year
-The "baby food" will bring customs to taverns
-decrease spousal abuse (husbands would take care of their wives so that they could deliver "healthy" babies)
1. In The Diary of Samuel Pepys, where does Pepys go to see the coronation of Charles II? When? When Pepys first views the fire, what does he do? Why?
-London church in West Minster Abbey in 1661
-Pepys goes back to sleep and goes with his friends in a boat watch
-He went back to sleep because he thought the fire was far away and it wasn't a big deal
2. In The Diary of Samuel Pepys, when Pepys explores the burning city, what does he notice most people doing? What does he notice about the pigeons? How does Pepys describe the fire and the destruction it creates on the night of September 2?
-he notices people concentrating more on saving their belongings than trying to put the fire out
-the pigeons hover around the burning houses and then are caught in the flames
-he describes the fire as "all consuming" and destructive -He describes how the fire reached the end of the city
1. In A Journal of a Plague Year, why was the great pit dug in the churchyard of the parish? What reasons does the narrator give the sexton for visiting the great pit in the churchyard? What is the sexton's response?
-It was a tradition for burials to be near the church
-the narrator says he's curious
-the sexton tells the narrator to go ahead and visit the great pit because it will be the greatest sermon of his life. (it will push him to confess his sins before he dies)
2. In A Journal of a Plague Year, why did the initial order forbidding people to see the pit become more necessary as time passed? According to the narrator, what is the condition of the cloaked man who followed the cart into the churchyard??
-because the diseased bodies in the pit were still contagious
-people started throwing themselves in to die
-the cloaked man was sick or crazy with grief because his wife and children were in the cart
1. In the first paragraph of the preface to A Dictionary of the English Language, what purpose does Johnson say he hopes the dictionary will fulfill? How might the definitions in the dictionary help fulfill this purpose?
- the purpose is to bring glory to English authors and standardize the English Language
-By giving words meaning he will be creating a standard for his language and will also glorify the English authors because everyone will know who gave meaning to the words
2. Which of the definitions from Johnson's dictionary are sarcastic? Why might Johnson have decided to include these definitions?
-Oats in England used to feed horses in Ireland used to feed the people
-X is a letter which though found in Saxon words begins no words in the English language
-Lexicographer- a writer of dictionaries; a harmless drudge that busies himself if tracing the original and detailing the significance of words
-To prove to the world that he was a wit.
1. What happens to the speaker's anger with a friend and a foe in Blake's "A Poison Tree?" Why does the speaker deal with his anger in this way?
He tells his friend about his anger and it disappears. He does not tell his foe and ends up nurturing his anger until it grows more powerful. His anger ends up causing the speaker to do something irrational.
2. In Blake's "The Tyger," what question does the speaker ask in lines 1-5 and in lines 21-24? How do these questions differ? From these questions, what can you infer about the speaker's attitude toward the tiger?
In lines one through five the speaker simply asks who made you. In lines 21 to 24 he goes on to ask who dare make you? He starts off curious then ends up frightened when he finds out just how ferocious the tiger really is.
3. According to line 2 of Wordsworth's "The World Is Too Much with Us," with what activities are people preoccupied? How does this change lives? What does the speaker think of this change?
People are preoccupied with materialistic objects and industrial activities. People are no longer connected to nature. He is not pleased with this idea.
4. Specifically, what type of poem is Wordsworth's "It Is a Beauteous Evening, Calm and Free?" In the first octave, what is type of figurative language does the speaker use to describe the night? In the sestet, how does the child's relationship with nature differ from the speaker's?
It is a Beauteous Evening Calm and Free is an Italian Sonnet. In the first octave the speaker uses a simile to describe the night he states that night is quiet as a nun. The child's relationship differs from the speaker because the child cannot appreciate nature like the speaker does. the child can only view nature as beautiful, but cannot go into detail to express what exactly is beautiful about it.
1. What comparisons does Wollstonecraft make between women and children in A Vindication of the Rights of Woman? What do these comparisons reveal about women's status?
Woman were expected to be babied and not have a mind of their own. This makes the role of woman very weak and dependent on men.
2. What superiority does Wollstonecraft concede to men? Why does she claim that this one difference does not make one sex worthier than the other? Does her admission of this difference weaken or strengthen her argument?
Men will always be physically stronger. Woman can't help it because by nature men are stronger. Women can still be strong in their minds. It weakens her argument because it contradicts what she is trying to prove.
1. Is Walton a reliable narrator? Why or why not?
Walton is not a reliable narrator because he views things in a self-centered perspective. His narrative is overcome by his personal opinions and it overshadows some events int he story. For example, he has a long rant about how he needs a friend and this highlights how he is self-centered because it shows how he is only worried about his well being. His obsequious approach towards Dr.Frankenstein leaves readers with only the narrators biased views, making it harder for the reader to create their personal opinions about the doctor.
Is Walton's goal to "confer on all mankind...a passage near the pole" noble or overly ambitious?
Walton's goal seems overly ambitious. His selfish, self centered and cocky personality all leads to the conclusion of his overly ambitious goal. It can be inferred that his status is not where he wants to be, leading him to want to prove himself.Walton only wants to credit of "conferring on all mankind" and to obtain glory is Walton's first priority; the fact that Walton chooses to go forth with this dangerous goal alone only shows how much he wants to be credited by traceling without assistance.
3. How does Walton's desire for a friend affect his relationship with Dr. Frankenstein? How might this relationship affect the reader's trust in Walton as a reliable narrator?
Walton wanted a friend that is "gentle yet courageous,possessed of a cultivated as well as of a capacious mind, etc. and he found these quali9ties in Dr.Frankenstein. Finding these qualities makes Walton want to keep Dr.Frankenstein as a friend which ultimately threatens the readers trust because Walton is more likely to be biased to be in favor of the doctor. The reader can't make judgements about Dr.Frankenstein's character based on Walton's views.
1. How does Victor's statement that "the world was to me a secret which I desired to divine" serve as characterization?
By reading this statement we can say that Victor is determined, ambitious, and curious. He is determined in discovering the hidden laws of nature. He is ambitious because he thirsts for knowledge and is capable of a more intense application, rather than Elizabeth who admires the appearances and shapes of things. On the other hand, Victor obsessed over natural philosophy.
2. How do Henry and Victor differ? Why might Shelley be setting them up as character foils?
Henry, the charismatic socialite was deeply versed in the moral relations of things, busy stage of life, virtues of heroes and the actions of men.Victor however kept mostly to himself and enamored of natural philosophy. Henry strove to be recorded in story as a gallant and adventurous benefactor of our species while Victor acted indifferent towards the social aspects of life and was fascinated by creation.Shelly might be setting them up as character foils to highlight each others flaws, just like the part where Victor grows ill when he realizes the horror of his actions after meeting up with Henry.
3. What is Shelley's intent when she has Victor characterize Elizabeth as "the saintly soul (who) shone like a shrine-dedicated lamp in our peaceful home?" What role does this characterization set for Elizabeth?
Her intent was to make Elizabeth the addition to an already great life for Victor. Elizabeth's beauty and personality contributed to her making the family better than it already was. This role characterizes Elizabeth as an important addition who gives and extra positive influence to the family.
4. Is Victor's fascination with the Philosopher's stone an admirable one?
No it is not because it is impossible for anyone to live forever. It is like he is chasing a dream that doesn't exist. Growing up he lived in an indulgent lifestyle with love and affection that reality never caught up with him.Being someone who keeps to himself he idealizes too much and he never sets limits for himself.
5. Victor's obsession with natural science results in two years passing with no visits home. How would you evaluate his character at this point?
As a child he was very happy, he was a curious kid and he was very reclusive except when he was with his family.At this point he comes off as obsessed with natural philosophy he is so obsessed that when he pours himself into his studies, he also cuts society off and most importantly his family. He starts to have tunnel vision with his obsession, which leads him into weird habits. One particular habit was watching the worm crawl through all the crevices in a dead body.
6. Describe the shift in tone when Victor says, "Learn from me, if not by my precepts, at least by my example, how dangerous is the acquirement of knowledge and how much happier the man is who believes his native town to be the world, than he who aspires to become greater than his nature will allow."
In chapters one and two Victors tone is care free as he talks about his happy childhood. For example in chapter two he states I feel exquisite pleasure in dwelling on the recollection of childhood. In chapter three to five there is a shift in tone as he explains the death of his mother and the illness of Elizabeth. This is what causes him to go from a pleasant recall to a serious and foreboding tone as he warns Walton that though exploration of the world is a good thing, mankind should not exceed it's limits.
7. During his summer experiment, Victor admits "his eyes were insensible to the charms of nature." What role might nature (or the lack of it) play for Victor?
His lack of nature disconnects him and makes a laceration between himself and everthy9ing that does not pertain to his project. He also starts to neglect his family through a lack of communication which causes him to ignore them. Although his main purpose was to create life he focuses on the negative aspects of it which resulted in the distortion of his true goal. His being away from the true beauty of nature made him ignorant to the very thing that his creation was to promote.
8. What message might Victor be missing when he dreams that his kiss turns Elizabeth into a corpse?
Victor interpret5s the dream as a bad one, thinking that it's telling him that through his creation and meddling with death everyone he loved would die. We believe the message of the dream was meant to convey that if he could love his family during and after life then he could love his creature which he brought to life.
How does the change in narration to the creature's point of view affect the reading of the novel? Should the reader feel sympathy for the creature when he is rejected by humanity? Why or why not?
It gives the reader a different perspective and sheds light on how innocent the creature was. Yes, because he is rejected for the mere fact that he is physically ugly. They have no other reasons for rejecting him.
What crucial role in the creature's development is played by the DeLacey family?
Learns how to read -- learns history -- realizes that he is deformed and alone
What is the motivation behind the creature's vow of "eternal vengeance to all mankind?"
the frequent rejection from his creator, the villagers, the DeLacy's, saving the girl and William. He tells Victor that if he doesn't make a female companion he will swear vengence.
Is the creature's demand for a female companion a valid request? Examine the pros and cons of Victor's compliance. Consider evidence provided by both Victor and the creature.
Yes. Con: creature will make babies, more babies means more problems; pro: the monster will leave Victor alone
What evidence suggest Victor feels responsibility for the murders? What evidence illustrates that he still blames the creature?
The way he treated the creature is one of them. When he destroys the female companion.
After watching his female companion torn to bits, the creature makes an eloquent defense and vows Victor will "repent of the injuries (he) inflicts." Is the creature justified in his feelings?
Why or why not?
the creature is justified in his feelings because of the severity of the injuries Frankenstein has bestowed upon him. Frankenstein is at fault for creating this being, ultimately sending him through a life of torment and hate. The creature wants his creator to feel just how much he had thrust upon him. He wants vengeance to the point where Frankenstein regrets every wrong move he made. The fact that Victor had taken away his creature's one chance at normality only increased his anger.
After hearing of Clerval's murder, Victor alls ill once again. In agony, he wonders, "Why did I not die?" What would your answer be? Is there a reason for his continued anguish?
At first, Victor promised the creature to create a companion for it to love and care for. He broke his promise and destroyed the female body. I believe he did not die because the creature wanted Victor to be alive to suffer the same loss. His continued anguish is due to the loss of another person close to hm.
What is the motivation behind Victor's vow to find and destroy his creature? Has he learned any lessons?
Victor is motivated to find and destroy his creature because it has destroyed his family. For example,, the creature killed his brother, framed Justine for the murder (leading to her death), kills Henry and then Elizabeth. Elizabeth's death hurts Victor the most, motivating him to seek revenge.
What is the purpose of Shelley's irony when Walton recognizes he has found the friends he was looking for only to watch him die?
The purpose of Shelley's irony is so that the reader can see Walton is much like Victor. Both men are guilty of arrogance and hope to bring glory to themselves through their personal ventures. Due to the fact that they are arrogant, they put other people's lives in danger. This happens to Victor's family and he dies soon after. His death serves a sa warning to Walton. If he continues on this course, then he will end up like Victor.
Why does the creature choose to die at the end of the novel? What does his choice suggest about his connection to Frankenstein?
After Frankenstein dies the creature feels like the completion of his work renders him purposeless. Also he is miserable because his last hope, the desire for a female companion, is lost. His choice suggests that he felt compassion for his creator.