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Reptiles, Amphibians & Fish

chordate

the phylum whose members have a notochord, a nerve chord, and pouches in their throat area at some point in their lives

notochord

a flexible rod that supports a chordates back

vertebra

the backbone that is formed by many similar bones

endotherm

an animal whose body regulates its own temperature by controlling the internal heat it produces

ectotherm

an animal whose body does not produce much internal heat. Its body temperature changes depending on the temperature of its environment

fish

a vertebrate that lives in water and uses fins to move. They are ectotherms, obtain oxygen through gills and have scales

cartilage

a tissue that is more flexible than bone

swim bladder

an internal, gas filled sac that helps the fish stay stable at different depths in the water

amphibian

a vertebrate that is ectothermic and spends its early life in water and its adult life on land

tadpole

the larval form of a frog or a toad

lung

an organ found in air-breathing vertebrates that exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide with the blood

atrium

each of two upper chambers of the heart that receive blood that comes into the heart

ventricle

a lower chamber of the heart that pumps blood out to the lungs and body

habitat

the specific environment that provides the things an organism needs to live, grow and reproduce

reptile

an ectothermic vertebrate that lays eggs and has lungs and scaly skin

urine

a watery fluid produced by the kidneys that contains urea and other wastes

kidney

a major organ of the excretory system that removes urea and other wastes from the blood

amniotic egg

an egg with a shell and internal membranes that keep the embryo moist

fossil

the preserved remains or traces of an organism that lived in the past

sedimentary rock

rock formed of hardened layers of sediments

paleontologist

a scientist who studies extinct organisms, examines fossil structure, and makes comparisons to present-day organisms

cartilaginous fish

fish that have jaws and scales, and skeletons made of cartilage. ex. sharks, rays and skates

bony fish

fish that have jaws, scales, a pocket on each side of the head that holds gills, and a skeleton made of hard bones. ex. trout, tuna, gold fish

jawless fish

fish that have no jaws and no scales. ex. hagfish and lamprey eels

lizzard and snakes

reptiles that have skin covered with overlapping scales, as they grow they shed their skin and scales. Most live in warm areas

alligators

are large carnivorous reptiles that care for their young and have broad, rounded snouts with only a few visible teeth when their mouth is shut

crocodiles

are large carnivorous reptiles that care for their young and have pointed snouts, with most of their teeth showing when their mouth is shut.

turtle

a reptile whose body is covered by a protective shell that includes the ribs and backbone

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