Sociology Exam II

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counter culture

cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a culture

cultural belief

ideas that a culture views as true

cultural relativism

practice of judging a culture by its own standards

culture lag

the fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others, disrupting a cultural system. trying to adapt to new technology

culture shock

the experience of feeling disoriented, uncertain, out of place or fearful when encountering an unfamiliar culture.

ethnocentrism

practice of judging another culture by the standards of your own culture

folkways

casual rules for everyday interaction, mild informal sanctions, justified by traditions. ex. dress in dark colors to funeral

language

a system of symbols that allow people to communicate with each other.

law

rules that are encoded by the law, official authority. opposite of folkways

mainstream culture

american culture

material culture or artifact

physical objects people use to describe their culture

mores

norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance

non material culture

nonphysical ideas that people have about their culture, including beliefs, values, rules, norms, morals, language, organizations, and institutions. ex. religion

norm

rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members THREE TYPES:folkways, mores and laws .

sanction

penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm. can be positive and negative.

subculture

cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society's population

technology

special kind of knowledge about how to use the material resources of the environment in order to satisfy human needs, extension of human capacities. ex. feet---car

lenski

saw technology as a basis for understanding development of human societies which he called sociocultural evolution.

values

culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good, and beautiful and that serve as broad guideline for social living

verbal symbol

words, sentences, sounds, or other utterances that are said aloud in order to convey some meaning

achieved status

when an individual assumes a status through their personal efforts

ascribed status

born into the status

gender role

attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex

gender status

role of different genders

impression management

goal-directed conscious or unconscious process in which people attempt to influence the perceptions of other people about a person, object or event; they do so by regulating and controlling information in social interaction

in-group

a social group toward which a member feels respect and loyalty

master status

a status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a persons life.

modern society

post-traditional, post-medieval historical period, in particular, one marked by the move from feudalism (or agrarianism) toward capitalism, industrialisation, secularization, rationalization,

organization

formal: secondary group that comes together and formalizes relationships between members in order to achieve specific goals.

out-group

a social group in which a person feels a sense of competition or opposition

presentation of self

erving goffman's term for a persons' efforts to create a specific impression in the minds of others.

primary group

a small social group in which members share personal and lasting relationships

reference group

a social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions.

role conflict

when a person occupies two or more statuses which have roles that are contradictory or in conflict ex: work and school

role exit

rocess of disengagement from a role that is central to one's self-identity and establishment of a new role and identity

role set

a number of roles attached to a specific status

role strain

when behaviors attached to a specific status are contradictory or exceddingly heavy and impossible to met ex: good grades and social life

secondary group

a large group in which members pursue a specific goal; ex soc class

social construction of reality

the process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction

social institution

a major sphere if social life or societal subsystem organized to meet human needs

social interaction

process by which people act and react to interactions

social structure

any relatively stable pattern of social behavior

status

a social position that a person holds

status set

all the statuses a person holds at a specific time

adolescence

The period following the onset of puberty during which a young person develops from a child into an adult

adulthood

he period of time in your life after your physical growth has stopped and you are fully developed

anticipatory socialization

learning that helps a person achieve a desired position

childhood

state of being a child

concrete operational stage

PIAGET: 8-12 child can see casual connections in their surroundings and become interested in understanding why things happen

ego

Freud's term for a person's conscience efforts to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives with the demands of society

egocentric

Thinking only of oneself, without regard for the feelings or desires of others; self-centered.

emphatic ability

ability to recognize emotions

formal operational stage

PIAGET: 12+ capable of abstract thinking

game

MEAD: child goes from simple role playing to relating to multiple role expectations simultaneously

generalized others

MEAD:the child gains understanding of its social position and that of others in the larger world

id

inborn drives:life force or need to bond and death force or aggressive drive FREUD

imitation or preparatory stage

with limited langauge, the child only engages in role imitation; no self yet- only mommy and daddy MEAD

internalization

internalization is the process of acceptance of a set of norms established by people or groups which are influential to the individual.

life course

internalization is the process of acceptance of a set of norms established by people or groups which are influential to the individual.

looking glass self

COOLEY'S term for self image based on how we thing others see us

mass media

the means for delivering impersonal communications to a vast audience

nature

accepted standards of basic morality or behavior

nurture

The act of bringing up.

old age

after retirement

peer group

a social group whose members have interests, social posistion and age in common, plays a major role in childhood and adolescence

play stage

MEAD: child can take the role of the other which brings about the perspective of significant others

preoperational stage

PIAGET: 2-7 children begin to use language and other symbols are are able to think about the world but only in concrete ways...cant understand things like death

re socialization

radically changing a inmate's personality by controlling the environment that they are in

sensormotor stage

infancy to 2; child experiances world though senses PIAGET

significant others

people, such as parents who have an important role in socialization

superego

internalization of society's norms; begin around age 5

taking the role of other

able to take the role of someone else

generalized other

the child gains understanding of its social position and that of others in the larger world

Pavolian Approach

dog experiments: dog salivates when hears dinner bell

Skinnerian Approach

pigeon experiments: operant conditions ex: gambling

watsonian approach

human behavior and personality are completely flexible and can be molded in any direction

Freud

puts forward a biologically based view of human development which emphasized the essential role of society in socialization

piaget

interest in child's cognative developement

Kohlberg

focus on development of child; how it judges right from wrong
preconventional- under 10
conventional- 10-16
post conventional- 16+
ONLY MALES

gilligan

studied males and females SAME AS KOHLBERG

Cooley

looking glass self

Mead

capacity of child to take the role of the other

goffman

examines how consciously create images of ourselves: impression management

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