What were three things that had overtaken Europe in the 1300's?
Black Death, Starvation, warfare
Explain the significance of the Black Death, Starvation and warfare in the Renaissance?
decrease in population led farmers to produce more food than needed so food prices went down and people spent money on other things demand for agricultural goods increased. areas began to specialize
Whose merchants were some of the wealthiest merchants in the world? Why?
Venice's because of trade
Who said, "what wealth of buildings, what distinguished architexture there is in Florence! Indeed, how the great genius of the builders is reflected in these buildings, and what a pleasure there is for those who live in them"?
Causes of the Renaissance
increased trade with Asia and other regions as a result of the Crusades, Growth of large wealthy city states in Italy, Renewed interest in classical learning of ancient Greece and Rome, Rise of rich and Powerful merchants, Increased desire for scientific and technical k knowledge, desire to beautify cities
What caused people to think about the characteristics of a good education?
interest in Greek and Roman culture
Because of the new interest in Greek and Roman culture what changed in the education system?
The church's scholastic education began to give way to the classic subjects
What did the Church's teachings say? What did humanists say?
Church said individuality and achievement were relatively unimportant; Humanists said individuality and accomplishment were important and that the potential of the human mind was almost limitlessportant
Who said, "On Man... the father conferred the seeds of... every way of life... If (a man is) rationale, he will grow into a heavenly being. If (a man is) intellectual, he will be an angel and the son of God"
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola
What did Boccaccio and Petrarch do?
they wrote literature in vernacular or everyday language of the people.
Why did people turn to Petrarch?
Italy was insecure after war, Church was no longer stable, turned toward humanism and secular focus
What is secular humanism
that individual achievement and education could be fully expressed only if people used their talents and abilities to serve their cities
What is the ideal renaissance man?
"the universal man" accomplished in the classics, man of action, could respond to all situations
Which book describes a fictional conversation between the duke and his guests?
"The courtier" by Castiglione
how did the courtier suggest people should behave
Speak of serious and amusing subjects, know Latin and Greek, Be well-aquainted with poetry and history, be able to write prose and poetry
How did Merchants use Castiglione's book and why?
as a guide to behavior, they hoped if they acted like courtiers it would raise their status
Who was Niccolò Machiavelli?
author of "The Prince", a political philosopher and statesmen.
What influenced Machiavelli?
His experiences with violent politics of the time influenced his opinions about how governments should rule
What advice is given by Machiavelli in "the Prince"?
Harsh treatments, advises rulers to separate morals from politics, power and ruthlessness are better than idealism, ruler must do whatever is necessary to stay in power
Who says, "A prudent ruler cannot, and must not, honor his word when it places him at a disadvantages and when the reasons for which he made his promise no longer exist."
Where did humanists find a wealth of scientific information?
archives and Arab translations for classical texts
The majority of humanist scholars and writers focused on what type of science?
Human sciences (history, geography, and politics)
Why was scientific exploration of the natural world important?
It challenged the Church's teachings about the world
Who was Nicholas Copernicus?
A polish astronomer, who suggested our solar system was a heliocentric model.
Who was Galileo Galilei?
An Italian astronomer, who wrote that Earth orbited the sun and was place under house arrest by church officials for expressing his views
Who was the Medici family?
a wealthy family in Florence that ruled the city and supported the art; gave huge sums of money to artists, intellectuals, and musicians
What did Renaissance artist experiment with?
perspective and new ways of using color to portray shapes and textures
How did RA differ from MA subject wise?
RA painted religious subjects that focused on human personality of figures and significance and also Greek and Roman myths.
What did the shift of themes of art tell?
displayed the humanist interest in classical learning and human nature in the renaissance
How did the design of buildings during the renaissance reflect humanist reverence of Greek and Roman culture?
Churches, palaces, and public buildings incorporated columns and domes inspired by Greek and Roman architexture
Who was Leonardo da Vinci and was he considered a Renaissance man?
a painter, He was a renaissance man because he was also a writer, inventor, architect, engineer, mathematician, musician, and philosopher
What was amazing about Da Vinci's notes?
He filled 20,000 pages with ideas for armored tank, flying machine, sketches of human anatomy
What is Pietà?
a sculpture of Mary (mama of Jesus) holding her son after his death by Michaelangelo Buonarotti
What is a famous painting of Michaelangelo Buonarroti?
The artwork on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
What does the artwork on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel depict?
scenes from the Old Testament of the Bible
Why is the painting on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel considered a great achievement in the history of painting?
Because of the personalized characterizations of biblical figures
What is the name of Rafael's fresco and what does it depict?
"The School of Athens"; Plato and Aristotle surrounded by past and present philosophers