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Chapter 15

What were three things that had overtaken Europe in the 1300's?

Black Death, Starvation, warfare

Explain the significance of the Black Death, Starvation and warfare in the Renaissance?

decrease in population led farmers to produce more food than needed so food prices went down and people spent money on other things demand for agricultural goods increased. areas began to specialize

What did England and Germany specialize agriculturally in?

England- wool, Germany- Grain

As specialization increased what else increased?

trade

Italy was divided into what in the north?

large city states

Italy was divided into what in the south?

papal states

Three examples of City-states

Venice, Milan, Florence

Give an example of what artisans practiced?

goldsmithing

Venice's economy was based on?

Trade

What city is described as "a work of art"

venice

Whose merchants were some of the wealthiest merchants in the world? Why?

Venice's because of trade

What prospered in Venice?

shipbuilding

What was Milan's economy based on?

agriculture, silk, weapons

What was Florence's economy based on?

banking and cloth

Monarch appealed to Florentine bankers for money to fund what?

To fund wars and other endeavors

Merchants redefined what into what in Florence and sold it abroad.

raw wool into fine cloth

Who said, "what wealth of buildings, what distinguished architexture there is in Florence! Indeed, how the great genius of the builders is reflected in these buildings, and what a pleasure there is for those who live in them"?

Leonardo Bruni

Which family helped finance new buildings in Florence?

Medici family

What does the Renaissance mean? In which language?

Rebirth in french

Causes of the Renaissance

increased trade with Asia and other regions as a result of the Crusades, Growth of large wealthy city states in Italy, Renewed interest in classical learning of ancient Greece and Rome, Rise of rich and Powerful merchants, Increased desire for scientific and technical k knowledge, desire to beautify cities

3 main reasons of the renaissance

increased trade, thriving cities, and wealthy merchant class

Who came to Venice on ships and Why?

Greek Scholars who were seeking refuge from the Ottomans

What did Greek Scholars bring with them?

ancient works that had thought to have been lost

What had the classical thinkers believed in?

human capacity to create and achieve

What caused people to think about the characteristics of a good education?

interest in Greek and Roman culture

Because of the new interest in Greek and Roman culture what changed in the education system?

The church's scholastic education began to give way to the classic subjects

What subjects make of the humanities

rhetoric, grammar, poetry, history, and Latin and Greek

What movement did the humanities inspire?

Humanism

What did the Church's teachings say? What did humanists say?

Church said individuality and achievement were relatively unimportant; Humanists said individuality and accomplishment were important and that the potential of the human mind was almost limitlessportant

Who was Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

a humanist who wrote about the importance of the human mind

Who said, "On Man... the father conferred the seeds of... every way of life... If (a man is) rationale, he will grow into a heavenly being. If (a man is) intellectual, he will be an angel and the son of God"

Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

The roots of humanism are sometimes traced back to what/who?

the works of Dante Alighieri

Who was Dante Alighieri

a Florentine poet in the middle ages

Name two important humanists

Giovanni Boccaccio and Francesco Petrarch

What did Boccaccio and Petrarch do?

they wrote literature in vernacular or everyday language of the people.

In the past, what had most writings been written in?

formal latin

humanists rediscovered ancient texts on...

anatomy, geography, and astronomy

What was a notable advancement in medicine?

Leonardo da Vinci's study of human anatomy

Why did people turn to Petrarch?

Italy was insecure after war, Church was no longer stable, turned toward humanism and secular focus

What is secular humanism

that individual achievement and education could be fully expressed only if people used their talents and abilities to serve their cities

What is the ideal renaissance man?

"the universal man" accomplished in the classics, man of action, could respond to all situations

Who is Baldassare Castiglione

a humanist, italian diplomat, wrote the book "The Courtier"

Who dominated Italian society?

the church, nobles, artisans and merchants

What did renaissance artists use that Medieval artists did not use?

perspective

Merchants were usually either...

bankers or traders

What does the courtier describe

how to be the perfect Renaissance gentleman or gentlewoman

Which book describes a fictional conversation between the duke and his guests?

"The courtier" by Castiglione

how did the courtier suggest people should behave

Speak of serious and amusing subjects, know Latin and Greek, Be well-aquainted with poetry and history, be able to write prose and poetry

How did Merchants use Castiglione's book and why?

as a guide to behavior, they hoped if they acted like courtiers it would raise their status

Who was Niccolò Machiavelli?

author of "The Prince", a political philosopher and statesmen.

What influenced Machiavelli?

His experiences with violent politics of the time influenced his opinions about how governments should rule

Who wrote "The Prince" ?

Niccolò Machiavelli

Who described men as "ungrateful, fickle, liars, and deceivers"?

Machiavelli

What advice is given by Machiavelli in "the Prince"?

Harsh treatments, advises rulers to separate morals from politics, power and ruthlessness are better than idealism, ruler must do whatever is necessary to stay in power

Who says, "A prudent ruler cannot, and must not, honor his word when it places him at a disadvantages and when the reasons for which he made his promise no longer exist."

Niccolò Machiaveli

What was Niccolò Machiaveli's theory?

The ends justify the means

Where did humanists find a wealth of scientific information?

archives and Arab translations for classical texts

The majority of humanist scholars and writers focused on what type of science?

Human sciences (history, geography, and politics)

Why was scientific exploration of the natural world important?

It challenged the Church's teachings about the world

Who was Nicholas Copernicus?

A polish astronomer, who suggested our solar system was a heliocentric model.

Who was Galileo Galilei?

An Italian astronomer, who wrote that Earth orbited the sun and was place under house arrest by church officials for expressing his views

RA or MA. Who used idealism and symbolism of religious themes

MA

Who and what were patrons?

buyers of art; wealthy individuals, city governments or the church.

Who was the Medici family?

a wealthy family in Florence that ruled the city and supported the art; gave huge sums of money to artists, intellectuals, and musicians

Who was the family who were rulers in Milan?

the sforza family

What did Renaissance artist experiment with?

perspective and new ways of using color to portray shapes and textures

How did RA differ from MA subject wise?

RA painted religious subjects that focused on human personality of figures and significance and also Greek and Roman myths.

What did the shift of themes of art tell?

displayed the humanist interest in classical learning and human nature in the renaissance

How did the design of buildings during the renaissance reflect humanist reverence of Greek and Roman culture?

Churches, palaces, and public buildings incorporated columns and domes inspired by Greek and Roman architexture

Who was Leonardo da Vinci and was he considered a Renaissance man?

a painter, He was a renaissance man because he was also a writer, inventor, architect, engineer, mathematician, musician, and philosopher

Who painted "The Last Supper" and the "Mona Lisa"

Leonardo da Vinci

What was amazing about Da Vinci's notes?

He filled 20,000 pages with ideas for armored tank, flying machine, sketches of human anatomy

Who designed and built canals?

Leonardo da Vinci

Who developed a machine to cut threads in screws?

Leonardo da Vinci

Who designed the first machine gun?

Leonardo da Vinci

Who is Michaelangelo Buonarroti?

a Roman sculptor and Painter

What were two famous sculptures of Michaelangelo Buonarroti?

Pietà and David

What is Pietà?

a sculpture of Mary (mama of Jesus) holding her son after his death by Michaelangelo Buonarotti

What is "David"?

a 13 foot marble sculpture by Michelangelo Buonarotti

What is a famous painting of Michaelangelo Buonarroti?

The artwork on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.

What does the artwork on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel depict?

scenes from the Old Testament of the Bible

Why is the painting on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel considered a great achievement in the history of painting?

Because of the personalized characterizations of biblical figures

Who was Raffaello Sanzio

a painter and architect, known as Raphael

Who created the School of Athens and what medium was it?

Rafael, fresco

What is the name of Rafael's fresco and what does it depict?

"The School of Athens"; Plato and Aristotle surrounded by past and present philosophers

Who is admired for their paintings of the Madonna or mother of Jesus?

Raphael

Who is Donato Bramante?

a roman architect

Who designed St. Peter's Basilica?

Bramante

How did Bramante achieve fame?

by being the chosen architect of Rome

MA or RA. Depicted scenes of nature

RA

MA or RA. art done anonymously

MA

MA or RA art done for the highest price

RA

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