Chapter 11 Psychology Motivation

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2nd to last test!!!!!!

Motivation

The process of starting, directing, and maintaining, physical and psychological activities; includes mechanisms involved in preferences for one activity over another and the vigor and persistence of responses.

Drive

Internal state that arises in response to a disequilibrium in an animal's physiological needs.

Homeostasis

Constancy or equilibrium of the internal conditions of the body.

Incentive

External stimulus or reward that motivates behavior although it does not relate directly to biological needs.

Instinct

Preprogrammed tendency that is essential to a species's survival.

Social-learning Theory

The learning theory that stresses the role of observation and the imitation of behaviors observed in others.

Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow's view that basic human motives form a hierarchy and that the needs at each level of the hierarchy must be satisfied before the next level can be achieved; these needs progress from basic biological needs to the need for self-actualization.

Anorexia Nervosa

An eating disorder in which an individual weighs less than 85% of her or his expected weight but still expresses intense fear of becoming fat.

Bulimia Nervosa

An eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by measures to purge the body of excess calories.

Binge Eating Disorder

An eating disorder characterized by out of control binge eating without subsequent purges.

Sexual Arousal

The motivational state of excitement and tension brought about by physiological and cognitive reactions to erotic stimuli.

Parental Investment

The time and energy parents must spend raising their offspring.

Sexual Script

Socially learned program of sexual responsiveness.

Date Rape

Unwanted sexual violation by social acquaintance in the context of a consensual dating situation.

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

A projective test in which pictures of ambiguous scenes are presented to an individual, who is encouraged to generate stories about them.

Need for Achievement (n Ach)

An assumed basic human need to strive for achievement of goals that motivates a wide range of behavior and thinking.

Attribution

Judgement about the causes of outcomes.

Organizational Psychologist

Psychologist who studies various aspects of the human work environment, such as communication among employees, socialization or enculturation of workers, leadership, job satisfaction, stress and burnout, and overall quality of life.

Equity Theory

A cognitive theory of work motivation that proposes that workers are motivated to maintain fair and equitable relationships with other relevant persons; also, a model that postulates that equitable relationships are those in which the participants' outcomes are proportional to their inputs.

Expectancy Theory

A cognitive theory of work motivation that proposes that workers are motivated when they expect their efforts and job performance to result in desired outcomes.

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