early 1900's The czar in Russia demands that hey industrialize. The trans Siberian railroad was 3 times longer larger than the US's trans-congenital railroad. It stretched across Russia. Significance: it is a sign of industrialization outside of Western Europe. It unites the Russian population though nationalism.
Daimler was a German engineer and industrialist, in the late 1800s he invented the first "riding car" that used an internal combustion engine which ran on steam. It hooked up with a horseless buggy. Significance: First riding car which allowed other inventors to use his as a model.
Mid 1800's. Idea developed by Karl Marx that says there is a class struggle by the bourgeoisie and the proletariat that would result in revolution and eventually a classless society. Significance: workers were beginning to unite against harsh working conditions.
Europe, late 1800s. Argued that workers must organize mass political parties and work together to gain reform. They believed that evolution by democratic means rather than evolution would achieve their goal of socialism. Significance: Workers were beginning to see government as a way to help them.
mid 1800's. Built underground sewer system in Paris. Paris is the first city to have an underground sewer system. Significance: citizens were healthier and could contribute more to society.
prior to the 1850's cities were dirty, people would dump their waste wherever. Cholera spread due to polluted water. In the 1850's Georges Haussmann created an underground sewer system in Paris. People took tours of the sewers. Significance: People were healthier and cleaner allowing them to be more proactive in society.
early 1900s. founded the women's social and political union. Demanded women's rights, chained the selves to lamp posts, and blew up mailboxes to gain attention from media. Significance: Women over age 30 are given the right to vote.
late 1800's. German man working in Vienna had a medical degree. Studied women with hysteria, and dream interpretation. He said people have an irrational side called the id. Significance: challenges the ideas of the enlightenment (rational) by emphasizing that humans are driven by irrational factors.
early 1900s. Houston Chamberlain was a racist who misapplied Darwin's theory to societies and racial groups. Says an Aryan race is superior. Significance: used "science" to support stereotypes and discrimination.
early 1900s. Theodore Hurzl as a result of Houston Chamberlain's racism wrote a book predicting that Jews would have their own state. The first Zionist congress met in Switzerland and proclaimed its goal of the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine.
France in late 1800s was a move away from impressionism. It used exaggeration to convey emotion not realtiy. Ex: Van Goah significance: culture moved from the rationalistic ideas of the enlightenment to irrational.
"White Man's Burden"
late 1800's early 1900s. Poem by British man named Rudyard Kipling. Said that the colonies were savages and needed guidance from the more advanced whites. Significance: justified modern imperialism by saying that white people were more advanced and had a moral responsibility to modernize the savage native people.
Germany 1880s. Bismarch was leader of germany and invited all European leaders to a conference to set up ground rules for obtaining empires in Africa. It set up free trade in the Congo and along the Nile. It agreed to end the slave trade. It also state that future annexations of African territory would only be given when effective occupation had been demonstrated. Significance: prevented a war over Africa, by early 1900s Africa is almost completely divide up.
early 1900s. Boers were white descendants of Dutch farmers who left Europe and settled in Africa. Gold was found on Boers land and the British wanted to mine. The Boers said they could mine but they would be taxed heavily, British were outraged. The Boers used guerrilla tactics against British. Significance: it reveals the real reasons why Britain is in Africa- for money, highlights the hippocracy.
East India company
early to mid 1800s. it is a business that answers to the crown but controls India through indirect control. Hindu and Muslim leaders were allowed to remain in power as long as they answered to East India Company. Britain reforms India by putting an end to the civil war between Muslims and Hindu, outlaws the sati, burglary and rape crimes were outlawed. These reforms made India safe and benefited Britain. Significance: the colony of India was controlled for the benefit of Britain.
early 1800s British administrator who established a new school system in India to train the children of Indian elites. He introduced the British civil service exam, expanded the education of young girls. Significance: the British see value in educating India.
mid 1800's in India. Local Indians who served as British soldiers in India were called Sepoys. The Sepoys were given new weapons with powder bags sealed with animal fat. This was offensive both the Hindu and Muslim religion. The Sepoys lead a rebellion a year later Britain ends the rebellion. Significance: The east India Company is dissolved and India is under direct rule. More British soldiers are sent to India and the rebellion makes it even harder for the British and Indians to get along.
Treaty of Nanjing
mid 1800s. Treaty between China and Britain. Britain declares that 5 new ports are to be open for British trade, it limits tariffs on British goods, British are given extraterritoriality in china. Meaning that British citizens are exempt from Chinese law. China has to pay for the opium war, Britain is given power over Hong Kong. Significance: china is weak, once Britain has a piece of china several other countries also want to claim sphere of influence.
late 1800s in china. Boxer troops were a group of trained Chinese militia. They went to bejing and surrounded foreign quarters where the westerners lived. The government did not immediately act to put a stop to the rebellion. Western countries brought in their own forces to put down the rebellion. Significance: China loses sovereignty.
100 days of reform
Qing dynasty in China, early 1900s. was a result of the Sino Japanese war. China tries to reform everything. The civil service exam was replaced by a new educational system based off of the western model. The emperor's rule shifted from absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy. The military was strengthened. Emperor Guangxi was taken out of power by his aunt empress Cixi. Significance: china resists change leading to the collapse of the dynasty.
1890 in Japan. Ito Hirobumi goes to Germany and Prussia to learn about their constitution then came back to Japan and wrote a constitution for Japan. The constitution gave sovereignty to the emperor. The emperor controls arm forces, names prime minister and appoints the cabinet. It sets up a Diet or Japanese parliament which is elected by males who paid a certain amount in taxes. Significance: the emperor was able to maintain power and yet still modernize.
founder of Mitsubishi. He had friends in the military and was able to buy older Japanese military ships that the military did not need anymore. He started a shipping company to ship Japanese goods. He started acquiring more companies such as mining, banking and glass factories. Significance: an example of a zaibatsu or a company that holds a lot of businesses.
early 1900s off the coast of Korea. It was a conflict between Russia and Japan over Korea. Japan wins the war. Russia has to give up control of Korea, Manchuria and the southern part of the Sakhalin Island. Significance: Japan is seen as a modernized country that was a peer to the west.
China, early 1900s. Treaty ports in china opened to western access as a result of the opium war. Westerners had low tariffs so they could sell their products for less than the Chinese could sell theirs. The Chinese were only allowed in ports as second class citizens even though the ports were in china! Significance: Chinese culture was beginning to be taken down from the inside.
early 1900s, city in France. The city was surrounded on three sides by Germans, the Germans attached because they knew the French would not surrender. Germanys goal was to kill as many Frenchmen as they could. French forces were led by Pertain. France suffered heavy casualties. The city was left in ruins. Significance: showed that France was determined to push the Germans back.
early 1900s. Lead by Alfred von Schlieffen. It was a German plan which called for minimal troop deployment against Russia so that the majority of forces could fight France quickly and then turns to Russia. The plan required Germany to pass through Belgium however Belgium did not want to let them through. Britain guarantees Belgium's security. The plan fails and the French are able to stop German troops before they got to Paris. Significance: Britain is brought into the war. All the great powers of Europe were at war.
Treaty of Versailles
early 1900s. The allies met in Versailles, France to decide peace, a league of nations was created as a way of preventing war. It declared that Germany was responsible for the war and ordered them to pay reparations. The treaty created ten new nations in Europe, Germany had to give up some of their land, Germany's army was capped at 100 thousand men, the navy had to be reduced and the air force was eliminated. Significance: it sets up Germany for economic turmoil because they were blamed for the war
Russia, early 1900s. During world war 1 a group of peasants approached Tsar Nicholas II's winter palace to ask him for help with the war. The Tsars military opens fire shooting 130 peasants. Significance: there is resistance against the Tsar in response to this event.
early 1900s, Russia. The Duma takes power during the Russian revolution and called themselves the provisional government. It is lead by Alexander Kerensky. The government expands the war instead of trying to make peace. It ignores the people's demands for peace and bread. Significance: Russians lose hope in a democracy which lays the path for Lenin to gain popularity.
Early 1900s. during the Russian revolution he was living in exile in Switzerland. After the Germans learn about the revolutions in Russia, they put lenin on a train back to Russia to stir up trouble. Lenin mobilizes people against the provisional government and promises to bring down the provisional government. Lenin continued to gain popularity as the provisional government continued to fail. Lenin promises peace, bead and land. He is seen as the best option for government. The Bolsheviks are able to seize power with no resistance from the provisional government. Lenin creates the U.S.S.R, ends the war by signing the treaty of Brest Litovsk. The treaty was a negotiation between Germany and Lenin. Lenin is forced to give up a lot of land but he sees it as a price for ending the war. There is civil war in Russia between Lenin's supports and those opposed to him (white Russians). Significance: Lenin was a Russian defending Russia through nationalism.
1920s Germany. The Weimar republic had to pay for war reparations even though it was the Kiser who was the cause of it. The Weimar republic asked for a break from paying reparations but France said no. Money became almost worthless. It was cheaper to use money as wallpaper, firewood and blocks then it was to buy wallpaper, firewood or blocks. German workers were paid hourly because the money devalued as the day went on. The German government created new money because of the hyperinflation. Significance: The hyperinflation added to the increase in skepticism in democracy.
idea that all people have a right to choose their political status and pursue development. Woodrow Wilson was a big supporter of self determination.
John Maynard Keynes
1930s. British economist who said government needs to spend their way out of the depression. Britain, France and Germany ignore his ideas but the United States under Franklin Roosevelt partially embraces his ideas and creates a public works program. Significance: Because FDR uses Keynes ideas, extreme politics are kept out of the United States.
Indian national congress
late 1800s. A small group of Indian nationalists met in Bombay to form the INC. It was a political party in India whose goal was to seek self determination for all Indians regardless of class or religion. The INC was overwhelmingly Hindu which caused problems between Muslim and Hindu beliefs. INC decided to collaborate with Britain to work for reform. Significance: Eventually Britain allows an election and the INC wins the election however India does not gain independence until the mid 1900s.
Lead by Gandhi in early 1900s in India to protest the talk tax imposed by Britain. Gandhi wrote a letter to lord Irwin to notify Irwin of his plans. Indians marched 240 miles to the ocean. Gandhi collects salt from the sea which is a crime. He and his followers are arrested. Significance: Builds support for his cause, unifies the people of India, becomes world propaganda against Britain