Chapter 29: Vertebrate Evolution

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These questions are taken from a study guide for Biology 102 using the book Biology 10th edition by Sylvia S. Mader.

All of the following are characteristics of vertebrates EXCEPT
A. internal organs.
B. vertebral columns.
C. postanal tails.
D. exoskeletons.
E. skulls.

D. exoskeletons.

Vertebrates without jaws would be the
A. rays.
B. turtles.
C. lampreys.
D. eels.

C. lampreys.

The largest group of vertebrates is the
A. mammals.
B. fishes.
C. reptiles.
D. amphibians.

B. fishes.

The following are differences between amphibians and reptiles EXCEPT
A. amphibians have smooth non-scaly skin, whereas reptiles are covered with scales and their skin is dry.
B. all reptiles respire by the use of lungs, while amphibians use small lungs supplemented by cutaneous respiration
C. amphibian eggs are laid in water, but reptiles do not require water for reproduction.
D. reptiles are ectothermic, while amphibians are endothermic.

D. reptiles are ectothermic, while amphibians are endothermic.

Which phylum contains the vertebrates?
A. Arthropoda
B. Chordata
C. Annelida
D. Mollusca
E. Porifera

B. Chordata

A notochord is
A. a strip of cartilage that forms a back and tail in all vertebrates.
B. a stiff dorsal supporting rod.
C. replaced by the vertebral column during development.
D. All of the choices are correct.
E. B and C are correct.

E. B and C are correct.

______ were the first vertebrates to live on land and they evolved from ____.
A. Amphibians; fish
B. Reptiles; amphibians
C. Mammals; reptiles
D. Amphibians; lancelets

A. Amphibians; fish

The most likely ancestors of the vertebrates are
A. arthropods.
B. sea squirts.
C. annelids.
D. molluscs.

B. sea squirts.

The four defining characteristics of chordates are
A. segmentation, a dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal pouches, and an amniotic egg.
B. a dorsal hollow nerve cord, a notochord, bilateral symmetry, and mammary glands.
C. bilateral symmetry, segmentation, a well-developed coelom, and limbs.
D. a well-developed coelom, pharyngeal pouches, a notochord, and jaws.
E. pharyngeal pouches, a dorsal nerve cord, a notochord, and a postanal tail.

E. pharyngeal pouches, a dorsal nerve cord, a notochord, and a postanal tail.

In some chordates, the _______ is (are) replaced by _______.
A. pharyngeal pouches; gills
B. dorsal hollow nerve cord; a ventral solid nerve cord
C. gill arches; pharyngeal pouches
D. notochord; a dorsal hollow nerve cord
E. a vertebral column; notochord

A. pharyngeal pouches; gills

Which of these is NOT one of the characteristics of a vertebrate?
A. radial symmetry
B. segmentation
C. extreme cephalization
D. closed circulation
E. coelom

A. radial symmetry

The cartilaginous fishes include all EXCEPT
A. skates.
B. sharks.
C. goldfish.
D. rays.

C. goldfish.

The lancelets, or Branchiostoma, are found
A. in tropical Amazon streams.
B. as parasites inside the tracts of fish.
C. very rarely in mountain streams, where they are almost extinct.
D. commonly in the sandy bottoms of coastal waters around the world.
E. B and C are correct.

D. commonly in the sandy bottoms of coastal waters around the world.

Sharks
A. lack bony skeletons.
B. have placoid scales.
C. have a keen sense of smell.
D. have teeth derived from epidermal scales.
E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct.

The jawed fish and all other vertebrates are gnathostomes, which means they have
A. segmentation.
B. jaws.
C. a notochord that develops into a vertebral column.
D. amniotic eggs.
E. A and C are correct.

B. jaws.

The fossil Tiktaalik roseae
A. provides insight into how the legs of tetrapods evolved.
B. is a transitional fossil form.
C. was found in Arctic Canada.
D. is intermediate between reptiles and mammals.
E. A, B, and C are correct.

E. A, B, and C are correct.

Amphibians evolved from
A. darters.
B. sharks.
C. bass and bluegill.
D. sturgeon and catfish.
E. lobe-finned fishes with lungs.

E. lobe-finned fishes with lungs.

The discovery of a living coelacanth off the coast of Africa in the Indian Ocean in 1938 proved that it
A. was a modern fish unrelated to fossil coelacanths.
B. was the "missing link" between fish and amphibians.
C. can now climb onto land and travel some distances.
D. had changed very little and had not gone extinct.
E. was both the "missing link" and it could climb onto land and travel.

D. had changed very little and had not gone extinct.

Which of these characteristics is NOT found in the amphibians?
A. thin moist skin
B. two-chambered heart
C. small inefficient lungs
D. aquatic larvae
E. eggs with gelatinous covering

B. two-chambered heart

The amphibians' unique contribution to the evolution of land vertebrates was
A. respiration by gills.
B. respiration through the skin.
C. separation of lung/gill and systemic (body) circulation.
D. development of the tail for propulsion.
E. the leathery waterproof egg shell.

C. separation of lung/gill and systemic (body) circulation.

Amphibians were the dominant animal life during the ________ period.
A. Jurassic
B. Carboniferous
C. Devonian
D. Silurian
E. Cambrian

B. Carboniferous

The amphibians' common receptacle for the urinary, genital, and digestive canals is the
A. vulva.
B. glottis.
C. cloaca.
D. tympanum.
E. operculum.

C. cloaca.

Lungless salamanders lack lungs and breathe through their skins after they lose their gills. You would expect lungless salamanders to
A. prefer drier habitats.
B. prefer stagnant water.
C. be larger than most salamanders.
D. be restricted to smaller and/or thinner body plans.

D. be restricted to smaller and/or thinner body plans.

Most salamanders practice internal fertilization
A. using spermatophores.
B. externally in water.
C. internally by copulation.
D. just like frogs.

A. using spermatophores.

Reptiles evolved from ______ ancestors and were abundant by the ________ Period.
A. mammals; Carboniferous
B. fish; Devonian
C. echinoderms; Cambrian
D. amphibians; Permian

D. amphibians; Permian

Which of these characteristics first developed in reptiles?
A. amniotic egg
B. scales on skin
C. four-legged body
D. skull and vertebral column
E. animals living completely on land

A. amniotic egg

The mammal-like reptiles that gave rise to mammals were the
A. coelacanths.
B. therapsids.
C. lampreys.
D. archaeopteryx.

B. therapsids.

Reptiles dominated the Earth for about 170 million years until they died out at the end of the _________ Period.
A. Cambrian
B. Cretaceous
C. Ordivician
D. Silurian

B. Cretaceous

Several lineages of reptiles evolved from a common ancestral stem reptile, each adapting to different ways of life.
True False

True

Based on molecular data and skull features, what reptile(s) has an independent lineage from all other reptiles?
A. lizards
B. snakes
C. turtles
D. crocodiles
E. A and D have independent lineages.

C. turtles

The fossil record revealed that the largest flying animal to ever live had an estimated wing span of 13.5 meters. This animal is called
A. Tyrannosaurus.
B. Thecodont.
C. Quetzalcoatlus.
D. Tiktaalik.

C. Quetzalcoatlus.

The term archosaurs refers to
A. crocodilians.
B. dinosaurs.
C. lizards.
D. birds.
E. A, B, and D are correct.

E. A, B, and D are correct.

Characteristics of birds include all of the following EXCEPT
A. aquatic reproduction.
B. endotherms.
C. modified reptilian scales as feathers.
D. hard-shelled eggs.
E. a modified skeleton with a fused collarbone and a keel.

A. aquatic reproduction.

Generally the respiratory system in birds
A. is identical to the human breathing system.
B. is merely accelerated by the flight muscles.
C. resembles the positive pressure system of a frog.
D. is a one-way circulation of air so constant oxygen absorption can meet the high oxygen demand.

D. is a one-way circulation of air so constant oxygen absorption can meet the high oxygen demand.

All of the following statements concerning birds are true EXCEPT
A. birds have small, relatively under-developed brains.
B. some birds do not have the ability to fly.
C. birds have acute vision.
D. birds use the sun, stars, and the Earth's magnetic field to guide them.

A. birds have small, relatively under-developed brains.

Mammals are different from birds in all these characteristics EXCEPT
A. hair.
B. mammary glands.
C. constant body temperature.
D. young born alive.

C. constant body temperature.

The organ of nutrition used in fetal development in the most successful mammals is the
A. mammary gland.
B. egg.
C. pouch.
D. placenta.
E. marsupium.

D. placenta.

The duckbill platypus is different than most mammals because it
A. lacks hair.
B. is "cold-blooded."
C. doesn't secrete milk.
D. doesn't give birth, but lays eggs.
E. All of the choices are correct.

D. doesn't give birth, but lays eggs.

The position of mammals in evolution is best described as
A. they dominate life in the sea.
B. they were among the first animals to live on land and their diversity is greater than all living things known.
C. they arose from mammal-like reptiles in the Jurassic but remained small and insignificant while dinosaurs dominated the land.
D. mammals gave rise to birds.
E. All of the choices are correct.

C. they arose from mammal-like reptiles in the Jurassic but remained small and insignificant while dinosaurs dominated the land.

Monotremes
A. are egg laying mammals.
B. include the anteater and duck-billed platypus.
C. nurse their young.
D. All of the above are true.
E. A and C are true.

D. All of the above are true.

The mammalian lineages include
A. placental mammals.
B. marsupials.
C. monotremes.
D. All of the above are correct.
E. None of the above are correct.

D. All of the above are correct.

Marsupials are thought to have arisen in
A. Australia.
B. the Americas.
C. Antarctica.
D. Eurasia.

B. the Americas.

Marsupials include
A. spiny anteaters.
B. kangaroos.
C. Tasmanian devils.
D. All of the above are correct.
E. B and C only are correct.

E. B and C only are correct.

Predacious meat eaters with large and conical-shaped canines are
A. cetaceans.
B. chiroptera.
C. carnivores.
D. proboscidea.

C. carnivores.

All chordates are also vertebrates.
True False

False

The most successful mammals belong to the marsupials group.
True False

False

In humans the pharyngeal pouches of the embryo develop into auditory tubes, tonsils, thymus glands, and the parathyroid glands.
True False

True

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