Chapter 31: Animal Organization and Homeostasis

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These questions are taken from a study guide for Biology 102 using the book Biology 10th edition by Sylvia S. Mader.

What type of fiber accounts for the strength of various connective tissues?
A. elastic
B. collagen
C. actin
D. reticular

B. collagen

What type of tissue is striated, contains cells with one nucleus, and is not under voluntary control?
A. skeletal muscle
B. smooth muscle
C. cardiac muscle
D. nervous tissue

C. cardiac muscle

Which of the following cell types is mismatched with its description?
A. squamous epithelium - oval cells that store energy as fat
B. cuboidal epithelium - cube-shaped cells that absorb molecules
C. columnar epithelium - rectangular cells that line the digestive tract
D. neuron - specialized cells composed of dendrites, a cell body, and an axon that conducts nerve impulses

A. squamous epithelium - oval cells that store energy as fat

The correct sequence of increasing organizational complexity is
A. organ, tissue, cell, organ system, organism.
B. cell, organ, organ system, tissue, organism.
C. cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism.
D. organism, tissue, cell, organ system, organ.
E. tissue, cell, organ system, organism, organ.

C. cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism.

What type of tissue lines body cavities and covers body surfaces?
A. muscle tissue
B. nervous tissue
C. epithelial tissue
D. connective tissue

C. epithelial tissue

What type of tissue is responsible for contractions that account for movements of organs or the entire body?
A. muscle tissue
B. nervous tissue
C. epithelial tissue
D. connective tissue

A. muscle tissue

_______ is responsible for receiving, interpreting, and producing a response to stimuli.
A. Muscle tissue
B. Nervous tissue
C. Epithelial tissue
D. Connective tissue

B. Nervous tissue

What type of tissue is bone and cartilage?
A. muscle tissue
B. nervous tissue
C. epithelial tissue
D. connective tissue

D. connective tissue

The epidermis consists of
A. stratified squamous epithelial cells.
B. collagen fibers.
C. elastic fibers.
D. adipose tissue.

A. stratified squamous epithelial cells.

What tissue includes blood and adipose tissue?
A. muscle tissue
B. nervous tissue
C. epithelial tissue
D. connective tissue

D. connective tissue

_______ prevent digestive juices from leaking between the epithelial cells that line the lumen of the intestine.
A. Adhesion junctions (desmosomes)
B. The size of the molecules of digestive juices
C. Gap junctions
D. Tight junctions

D. Tight junctions

Which of the following statements about epithelial tissue is NOT true?
A. Squamous epithelium is composed of flattened cells.
B. Columnar epithelium is cube-shaped with the nucleus near the upper surface of the cells.
C. Simple epithelia have only a single layer of cells.
D. Pseudostratified epithelium looks like it has multiple layers, but all the cells are attached to the basement membrane.
E. Epithelium lining the respiratory tract contains cilia that move particles along its surface.

B. Columnar epithelium is cube-shaped with the nucleus near the upper surface of the cells.

A thin layer of protein that anchors the epithelium to the extracellular matrix is the
A. basement membrane.
B. plasma membrane.
C. compact bone.
D. hyaline cartilage.
E. neuroglia.

A. basement membrane.

An average person has about _____ neurons.
A. 100,000
B. 1 trillion
C. 2 million
D. 1 billion

B. 1 trillion

All of the following are functions of connective tissue EXCEPT to
A. line body cavities and cover surfaces.
B. bind and support body parts.
C. store energy as fat.
D. fill spaces.
E. produce blood cells.

A. line body cavities and cover surfaces.

Which statement about connective tissue is NOT true?
A. Loose connective tissue contains fibroblasts, different types of fiber, and a nonliving matrix.
B. Fibrous connective tissue includes bone and cartilage.
C. Blood is a connective tissue that contains a fluid matrix.
D. Adipose tissue provides insulation and padding in organs such as the skin.

B. Fibrous connective tissue includes bone and cartilage.

The Latin root word for "fatty" is the basis for the term
A. adipose.
B. endocrine.
C. hyperfibroblastic.
D. exocrine.
E. obese.

A. adipose.

Which is NOT a structure seen in compact bone?
A. cylindrical structural units called osteons (Haversian systems)
B. central canals containing blood vessels and nerves
C. osteocytes located within lacunae
D. bony bars and plates with irregular spaces between them
E. thin extensions of bone cells within canaliculi

D. bony bars and plates with irregular spaces between them

Which statement is NOT true about cartilage?
A. Cartilage cells are located in small spaces called lacunae.
B. The matrix of cartilage includes calcium salts.
C. The matrix of cartilage is both solid and flexible.
D. The human fetal skeleton is made up of cartilage.
E. Adult bodies possess structures that are made up of cartilage such as the nose, ear, and pads between the vertebrae in the backbone.

B. The matrix of cartilage includes calcium salts.

White blood cell fight infection by
A. transporting large amounts of oxygen to the infected area.
B. engulfing infectious pathogens and making antibodies.
C. increasing platelet production and forming a plug to seal off the area.
D. producing antibiotics that will kill bacteria and fungi.

B. engulfing infectious pathogens and making antibodies.

Skeletal muscle
A. is made of extremely small cells with one nucleus.
B. is not under voluntary control.
C. is found in the walls of the intestines and stomach.
D. has bands of actin and myosin filaments perpendicular to the length of the cell.

D. has bands of actin and myosin filaments perpendicular to the length of the cell.

Which statement about the heart tissue is NOT correct?
A. The heart is composed mainly of cardiac muscle tissue.
B. Cardiac muscle is not striated.
C. Cardiac cells have a single central nucleus.
D. Cardiac muscle cells are joined end to end by cell to cell junctions called intercalated disks.

B. Cardiac muscle is not striated.

Cardiac muscle cells are bound end to end by intercalated disks, which may be described as
A. thin extensions of bone cells within canaliculi.
B. specialized, striated cells with multiple nuclei.
C. areas where folded plasma membranes between cells contain adhesion junctions and gap junctions.
D. small spaces separated by matrix.

C. areas where folded plasma membranes between cells contain adhesion junctions and gap junctions.

Which statement is NOT true about nervous tissue?
A. Cells in the nervous system that conduct electrical impulses are called neurons.
B. Neuroglia support and protect neurons.
C. The dendrites carry electrical impulses away from the cell body of the neuron.
D. Nerve fibers are long axons covered by a myelin sheath.
E. Neuroglia provide neurons with nutrients and keep them free of cellular debris.

C. The dendrites carry electrical impulses away from the cell body of the neuron.

Which of the following is a function of the skin?
A. protecting underlying body parts from physical trauma
B. preventing water loss
C. thermoregulation
D. monitor touch, pressure, temperature, and pain
E. All of the above are a function of the skin.

E. All of the above are a function of the skin.

______ make up more than half the volume of the brain.
A. Neurons
B. Neuroglia
C. Nerves
D. Intercalated disks
E. Hyaline cartilage

B. Neuroglia

What processes are involved in getting a tan and then having it "fade" away?
A. Melanin is formed in the dead top epidermis to darken the cells, but quickly disintegrates.
B. Melanocytes form melanin in response to sunlight, but blood flow slowly carries the melanin away and the tan fades.
C. Melanocytes form melanin in response to sunlight but then reabsorb it in the absence of light.
D. After being exposed to sunlight, melanocytes in the dividing layer of the epidermis produce more melanin and distribute it to epidermal cells. These epidermal cells are naturally pushed to the surface where they are sloughed off.
E. Ultraviolet light damages the subcutaneous skin cells but these dark burned cells soon are dissolved and replaced in healing processes.

D. After being exposed to sunlight, melanocytes in the dividing layer of the epidermis produce more melanin and distribute it to epidermal cells. These epidermal cells are naturally pushed to the surface where they are sloughed off.

Most brain tumors are associated with
A. uncontrolled division of neurons.
B. hormone insufficiency.
C. actively dividing neuroglia cells.
D. uncontrolled growth of the axons and dendrites of neurons.

C. actively dividing neuroglia cells.

Which of the following functions performed by the skin would be lost or seriously compromised if someone suffered a severe burn over most of the body?
A. prevention of heat and water loss
B. prevention of massive and continuous infection from invasion by external bacteria, viruses, and parasites
C. production of sweat that evaporates and cools the body when it is overheating
D. conversion, in the presence of ultraviolet light, of precursor molecules to vitamin D
E. All of these are vital functions of the skin and would be compromised.

E. All of these are vital functions of the skin and would be compromised.

If you wash your skin and hair several times a day, you will soon have dry skin that easily cracks and bleeds because the oils you have removed are necessary to keep the skin supple. This oil is
A. pili secreted by arrectors.
B. lymph secreted by lymphatic ducts.
C. sebum secreted by sweat glands.
D. sebum secreted by sebaceous glands.
E. salty sweat secreted by sweat glands.

D. sebum secreted by sebaceous glands.

Possible indications of skin cancer are
A. color change of a mole.
B. mole with asymmetrical shape.
C. irregular borders of a mole.
D. All of the choices are correct.
E. None of the choices are correct.

D. All of the choices are correct.

At one time it was thought impossible to operate within the body cavities. But then the Canadian doctor William Beaumont operated on a gunshot wound to the stomach. A few decades later we saw breakthroughs in heart operations and transplants. And the 1990s were called the decade of the brain because of the extensive research being done on how the brain functions. The order in which these discoveries were made, by cavity, are
A. abdominal-thoracic-dorsal.
B. abdominal-dorsal-thoracic.
C. dorsal-thoracic-abdominal.
D. thoracic-abdominal-dorsal.
E. thoracic-dorsal-abdominal.

A. abdominal-thoracic-dorsal.

Usually it is not possible to penetrate inside a body cavity to reach interstitial spaces without cutting through some protective epidermal tissues. However, sperm reach the egg via the vagina, uterus, and fallopian tubes. Without crossing any epidermal barrier, the sperm finds the egg in what body cavity?
A. abdominal cavity
B. pleural cavity
C. pelvic cavity
D. pericardial cavity
E. dorsal body cavity (cerebral-spinal)

C. pelvic cavity

The level of carbon dioxide in the blood is monitored by nerve tissue. If you exercise strenuously, the increase in cellular respiration consumes oxygen from the blood and produces surplus carbon dioxide removed in the blood. Since this physical exertion requires faster breathing to replenish oxygen supplies and carry away carbon dioxide, the carbon dioxide sensors result in signals from the brain to increase breathing rate. After you have rested, and carbon dioxide levels are back to normal, your breathing rate decreases too. This is an example of
A. a response to a sensory impulse that causes a muscle or gland to react.
B. a negative feedback loop that stimulates a response similar to the stimulus.
C. a positive feedback loop that stimulates a response opposite to the stimulus.
D. the dynamic interplay between events that tend to change the internal environment and events that tend to keep it the same.
E. the dynamic interplay between events that tend to change the internal environment and events that tend to increase the changes.

D. the dynamic interplay between events that tend to change the internal environment and events that tend to keep it the same.

Homeostasis is the
A. negative feedback loop that stimulates a response similar to the stimulus.
B. dynamic interplay between events that tend to change the external environment and events that tend to keep it the same.
C. the acquisition, transformation and use of energy.
D. maintenance of normal internal conditions by means of self-regulating mechanisms.

D. maintenance of normal internal conditions by means of self-regulating mechanisms.

Which of the following statements concerning homeostasis in body temperature is NOT true? The body reacts to
A. heat by stimulating the sweat glands.
B. cold by contracting skeletal muscles in shivering.
C. cold by rerouting blood away from the skin.
D. heat by constricting the blood vessels in the skin.
E. All of the statements are not true.

D. heat by constricting the blood vessels in the skin.

Exocrine glands are classified as _______ tissue.
A. epithelial
B. connective
C. muscle
D. nervous

A. epithelial

Which of the following skin derivatives is mismatched with the organism on which it is found?
A. mammals - hair and nails
B. amphibians - epidermal scales
C. fishes - bony scales
D. birds - feathers

B. amphibians - epidermal scales

Neuroglia
A. outnumber neurons by 50 to 1 and compose more than half of the brain volume.
B. support and nourish neurons.
C. engulf bacteria and debris.
D. All of the choices apply.
E. B and C are true.

D. All of the choices apply.

Which is most closely associated with negative feedback?
A. As you continue to turn a faucet handle, more water flows out of it.
B. A child cuts his finger and the blood clotting process begins.
C. As the temperature falls in a house, the heater comes on.
D. As a woman goes into labor, hormones are secreted that stimulate the process.

C. As the temperature falls in a house, the heater comes on.

Which of the following connective tissue types supports the epithelium and forms a protective covering encasing muscles, blood vessels, and nerves?
A. dense fibrous connective tissue
B. adipose tissue
C. loose fibrous connective tissue
D. cartilage

C. loose fibrous connective tissue

What type of muscle tissue is found in the viscera of internal organs?
A. skeletal
B. smooth
C. striated
D. cardiac

B. smooth

In lactation, the more a baby suckles his mother's breast to obtain milk, the more milk is produced. This is a
A. positive feedback loop.
B. a negative feedback loop.

A. positive feedback loop.

Clubbing of nails and fingertips is associated with a deficiency of oxygen in the blood.
True False

True

Homeostasis is ultimately controlled by the nervous system.
True False

True

White blood cells are small, biconcave blood cells that transport oxygen.
True False

False

Platelets are fragments of a cell that are involved in the clotting of blood.
True False

True

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