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division of labor

A multicellular organism is characterized by a --- --- --- among cell types specialized for different functions.

Protoplast

Cell contents exclusive of the cell wall.

protoplasts

Only the --- of photosynthetic cells contain chloroplasts.

parenchyma

Mature --- cells have primary walls that are relatively thin and flexible, and most lack secondary walls.

vacuole

The protoplast of a parenchyma cell generally has a large central ---.

protoplast

A plant cell consists of a --- enclosed by a cell wall.

plasmodesmata

The protoplasts of neighboring cells are generally connected by ---, cytoplasmic channels that pass through pores in the walls.

desmotubules

(Plant cells) The endoplasmic reticulum is continuous through the plasmodesmata in the form of structures called ---.

middle lamella

An adhesive layer called the --- --- cements together the cell walls of adjacent cells.

primary

All plant cells have a --- cell wall secreted as the cell develops.

protoplast

(Plant cells) The secondary cell wall is closer to the --- than the primary wall, because it forms later, usually after the cell has stopped growing.

parenchyma

The highly specialized cells that function in the transport of sugar sap in the phloem (the sieve-tube members) are thin-walled and living and are examples of --- cells.

metabolic

Parenchyma cells perform most of the --- functions of the plant, synthesizing and storing various organic products.

parenchyma

Photosynthesis occurs within the chloroplasts of --- cells in the leaf.

parenchyma, plastids

Some --- cells in stems and roots have colorless --- that store starch.

parenchyma

The fleshly tissue of most fruit is composed mainly of --- cells.

parenchyma

Developing plant cells of all types are --- cells before specializing further in structure and function.

parenchyma, division

Plant cells that retain the less specialized condition and become mature --- cells do not generally undergo cell ---.

parenchyma, differentiate

Most --- cells retain the ability to divide and --- into other types of plant cells under special conditions... during the repair and replacement of organs after injury to the plant, for example.

parenchyma

In the laboratory, it is possible to regenerate an entire plant from a single --- cell.

parenchyma

Cell recognition: Relatively unspecialized, with thin, flexible primary walls. These cells carry on most of the plant's metabolic functions.

collenchyma

Cell recognition: Unevenly thickened primary walls; provide support to parts of the plant that are still growing.

sclerenchyma

Cell recognition: Specialized for support, have secondary walls hardened with lignin and may be dead (lacking protoplasts) at functional maturity.

Collenchyma

--- cells have thicker primary walls than parenchyma cells, though the walls are unevenly thickened.

Collenchyma, support

Grouped in strands or cylinders, --- cells help --- the young parts of the plant shoot.

collenchyma

Young stems and petioles often have a cylinder of --- just below their surface (the strings of a celery stalk, for example).

collenchyma

Because they lack secondary walls and the hardening agent lignin is absent in their primary walls, --- cells provide support without restraining growth.

collenchyma, elongate

Unlike sclerenchyma cells, mature, functioning --- cells are living and flexible and --- with the stems and leaves they support.

sclerenchyma

Also functioning as supporting elements in the plant, but with thick secondary walls usually strengthened by lignin, --- cells are much more rigid than collenchyma cells.

sclerenchyma

Mature --- cells cannot elongate, and they occur in regions of the plant that have stopped growing in length.

sclerenchyma, protoplast

So specialized are --- cells for support that many are dead at functional maturity, but they produce secondary walls before the --- dies.

sclerenchyma

The rigid --- walls remain as a 'skeleton' that supports the plant.

secondary, sclerenchyma

In parts of the plant that are still elongating, the --- walls of --- are deposited unevenly in spiral or ring patterns like the wire helix that reinforces the wall of a vaccuum hose.

sclerenchyma

The spiral helix form of --- cell wall thickening enable the cell wall to stretch like a spring as the cell grows.

xylem, sclerenchyma

The water-conducting vessel elements and tracheids in the --- are --- cells with dual functions: support and transport.

fibers, sclereids

Aside from vessel elements and tracheids, there are also two types of sclerenchyma cells called -- and --- that specialize entirely in support.

fibers

(Sclerenchyma) Long, slender and tapered, --- usually occur in groups.

Sclereids

(Sclerenchyma) --- which are shorter than fibers and irregular in shape, impart the hardness to nutshells and seed coats and gritty texture to pear fruits.

embryonic

At any given instance, a typical plant consists of --- organs, developing organs, and mature organs.

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