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urban morpholgy

the layout of the city , the cities phydical form and structure .

city

a group of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics.

urban

a term we use to describe the buildup of the central city and the surburban realm - the city and the surrounding environs connected to the city.

agricultural village

when people are clustered in a small town or village, they live there year round, and everyone is involved in agriculture and live near subsistence levels.

social straitification

where you are in a society, your ranking in society

leadership class

urban elite, a group of people that make decisions about organizing and controling resources and lives of others.

first urban revolution

the idea of the first city. occured independently in five seperate hearths , independent invention.

mesopotamia

- has great cities [ Ur and Babylon] between the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers.
- has social inequality, protected by mud walls
- 1st hearth near fertile cresent
- 3500 BCE ago .

nile river valley

- 2nd hearth , 3200 BCE
- diffused from the fertile cresent
- didn't build walls

indus river valley

- 3rd hearth, 2200 BCE
- agriculture likely diffused from the fertile cresent
- had Harappa and MohenjoDaro as their first cities

huang he and wei river valley

- is in present day China, dates back to 1500 BCE
- 200 BCE Emperor Quin Xi Haung built the Great Wall of China
- 4th urban hearth

mesoamerica

- 5th urban hearth, 200 BCE
- had priests, temples, shrines
- Yuratan, Guatemala, Hunduras structures.

acropolis

high points in a cities land

acro - highpoint
polis - city

agora

meeting market, public space for focus of commercial activity

- Greece

site

identified suitable locales for settlements. the absolute location chosen for the best trade location the best defensice location or an important religious location.

forum

the public meeting area or high point on the land in the city.
- Rome

situation

a city relative location its place in the region and world around it.

trade area

an adjacent region within which its influence is dominant. How fat the influence of the city goes.

rank size rule

says that in a model urban hierarchy the population of a city or town will be inversely proportionanal to ots rank in the hierarchy.

central place theory

a theory by walter christaller that predicts how and where central places in teh urban hierarchy would be functionally and spatially distrubted.

sunbelt phenomenon

the movement of millions of people from the north and northern states to the south and southwest regions of the US.

functional zonation

the division of activity into different regions or zones for certain purposes or functions.

zone

area of a city with a relatively uniform land use [ industrial or residential zone ]

central business district

the downtown heart of a central city the CBD is marked by high land values, a concentration of bursiness and commerce and the clustering of the tallest buildings

central city

the urban area that is not suburban generally the older or original city that is surrounded by newer suburbs

suburb

a subsinary urban area surrounding and connected to the central city. many are exclusively residential; others have their own commercial centers or shopping malls.

suburbanization

movement of upper and middle-clas people from urnam core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as deteriorating social consitions (perceived and actual).

concentric zone model

a structural model of the american central city that suggests the existence of five concentric lans use rings arranged around a common center.

edge cities

a term intriduced by american journalist joel garreau in order to describe the shifting focus of urbanization in the US away from the Cental Business Distict toward new loci of ecinimic activity at the urban fringe. these cities are characterized by extensive amounts of office and reatail space, few ewsidential areas, and modern buildings (less than thrity years old )

urban realm

a spatial generalization of the large late twentieth century cuty in the TS it is shown to be a widley despersed multicentered metropolis consisting of increasingly independent zones ot tealms each focused on its own suburban downtown the only exception is the shrunken central realm which is focused on the central business distict.

Griffin-Ford model

developed by geographer Ernst Griffin and Larry Ford a model of the Latin American city showing a blend of traditional elements of Latin American culture and with the forces of globalization that are reshaping the urban scene.

disamenity sector

the very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not even connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs or drug lords.

McGee model

developed by geographer eg mcgee a model showing similar land use patterns among the medium sized cities of southeast asia

shantytowns

unplanned slum developement on the margins of cities dominated by crude dwellings and shelters made mostly of scrap wood, iron, and even peices of cardboard.

zoning laws

legal restrictions on land use that determines types of building and economic activities are allowed to take place in certain areas. in the US areas are most commonly divided into separate zone of residential retail or industrial use.

redlining

a discriminatory retail practice in North America in which members of minority groups are prevented from obtaining money to purchase homes or property in predominantly white neighborhoods. got name from red lines on cadastral map used by real estate agents and developers . is illegal.

blockbusting

rapid change in the racial composition of a block in american cities that occurs when real estate agents and others stir up fears of neighborhoos decline after encouraging people of color to move to previously white neighborhoods.

commercialization

the transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike in terms of economic activity.

gentrification

the rehabilitation of deteriorated often abandoned housing of low income inner city residents.

tear-downs

homes bought in many american suburbs with the intent of tearing them down and replacing them with much larger homes often refferdd to as mcmansions.

McMansions

homes referred to by their super size often built in american suburbs in places of tear downs

urban sprawl

unresticted growth in many american urban areas of housing, commercialism development, and roads over large exspanses of land with little concern for urban planning.

new urbanism

a design that calls for developement of urban revitalization and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs.

gated communities

restricted communities or subdivisions often literally fenced in where entry is limited to residents and their guests. high income based - in North America it is a middle class phenomena

informal economy

economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government and is not included in that governments gross national product as opposed to a formal economy .

world city

dominant city in terms of its role in the global political economy. not the world's biggest city in terms of population or industrial output, but rather centers of strategic control of the world economy.

primate city

a countries largest city - ranking ontop of the urban hierarchy - most exspresive of the national culture and usually the capital city as well .

spaces of consumption

areas of a city that makes people comsume goods and services driven by the global media industry .

agricultural surplus

when you make too much of a type of food

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