Art History - Midterm Study Guide #2 (Terms)

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Synthetic Cubism

Synthetic Cubism grew out of Analytical Cubism and the experimental nature of Collage.
Synthetic Cubism developed through a construction process rather than the analytical process and deconstruction of Analytical Cubism. It is also more decorative and appealing and somewhat easier to interpret.

Influence of African Art

African art has played an important role in the culture and history of the world.
It's distinctive characteristics and inspirations have influenced many artists to adapt their own interpretation of the art in their own time period.
During the early 1900s, the aesthetics of traditional African sculpture became a powerful influence among European artists who formed an avant-garde in the development of modern art.

Fauves (Fauvism)

Fauvism was the first of the avant-garde movements that flourished in France in the early years of the twentieth century.

German Expressionism

German Expressionism refers to a number of related creative movements beginning in Germany before the First World War that reached a peak in Berlin, during the 1920s.
These developments in Germany were part of a larger Expressionist movement in north and central European culture in fields such as architecture, painting and cinema.

Die Brucke

Die Brücke (The Bridge) was a group of German expressionist artists formed in Dresden in 1905, after which the Brücke Museum in Berlin was named.

Cubism

Cubism is the most influential movement in the history of modern art.
It is a complex movement, including not only painters and sculptors, but also musicians and poets.

Der Blaue Reiter

Der Blaue Reiter was a movement lasting from 1911 to 1914, fundamental to Expressionism, along with Die Brücke which was founded the previous decade in 1905.

Picasso's Blue Period

The Blue Period (Spanish: Periodo Azul) is a term used to define to the works produced by Spanish painter Pablo Picasso between 1901 and 1904, when he painted essentially monochromatic paintings in shades of blue and blue-green, only occasionally warmed by other colors.

Picasso's Rose Period

The Rose Period signifies the time when the style of Pablo Picasso's painting used cheerful orange and pink colours in contrast to the cool, somber tones of the previous Blue Period.

Patronage

Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.
In the history of art, arts patronage refers to the support that kings or popes have provided to musicians, painters, and sculptors.

Einstein- theory of relativity

The theory of relativity, or simply relativity, encompasses two theories of Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.

ambiguity of figure and ground

Figure ground ambiguity is the visual illusion with two alternate viewpoints.
This is similar to figure ground reversal, but the alternate image creates a totally different perception.

Analytic Cubism

Analytic Cubism was developed only by Picasso and Braque during the winter of 1909-10.
It lasted until the middle of 1912, when collage introduced simplified versions of the "analytic" forms.

The start of World War 1-
and its impact on artists

The period of the World War One, which took place between July 28th, 1914 and November 11th, 1918 may seem short in the history of human being or art, but its influence on technology, politics, people, their lifestyles and art was so huge that the war was called The Great War of all the history.

Bauhaus

Of, relating to, or characteristic of a 20th-century school of design, the aesthetic of which was influenced by and derived from techniques and materials employed especially in industrial fabrication and manufacture.

Japonisme/Japanese prints (influence of)

Japonisme, or Japonism, is a French term that was first used by Jules Claretie in his book L'Art Francais en 1872.
It refers to the influence of Japanese art on Western art.
In 1854, Japan re-opened trade with the west and Japanese arts including fans, porcelains, woodcuts, and screens were introduced in huge numbers to Europe, mainly France and the Netherlands.

Futurism

Futurism was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century.
It emphasized and glorified themes associated with contemporary concepts of the future, including speed, technology, youth and violence, and objects such as the car, the airplane and the industrial city.

Suprematism

Suprematism (Russian: Супрематизм) was an art movement focused on fundamental geometric forms (in particular the square and circle) which formed in Russia in 1915-1916.
It was founded by Kasimir Malevich.

Cabaret Voltaire

Cabaret Voltaire was the name of a nightclub in Zurich, Switzerland.
It was founded by Hugo Ball, with his companion Emmy Hennings on February 5, 1916 as a cabaret for artistic and political purposes.

Dada (Zurich, NY, Germany)

In February 1916, as World War I raged on, Dada came into being in Zurich in a small tavern on Spieglestrasse that became known as the Cabaret Voltaire.
Founded by the German poet Hugo Ball and his companion, singer Emmy Hennings, Cabaret Voltaire soon attracted artists and writers from across Europe who fled their countries and went to neutral Zurich to escape the war.

Dada

Dada or Dadaism is a cultural movement that began in Zurich, Switzerland, during World War I and peaked from 1916 to 1922.
The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature—poetry, art manifestoes, art theory—theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated its anti-war politics through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works.

Readymade

Everyday object selected and designed as art; the name was coined by the French artist Marcel Duchamp.

New Objectivity (Neue Sachlichkeit)

The New Objectivity (in German: Neue Sachlichkeit) is a term used to characterize the attitude of public life in Weimar Germany as well as the art, literature, music, and architecture created to adapt to it.

Expressionism

Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century.
Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas.

The School of Paris

School of Paris (French: École de Paris) refers to two distinct groups of artists — a group of medieval manuscript illuminators, and a group of non-French artists working in Paris before World War I.

De Stijl

De Stijl, Dutch for "The Style", also known as neoplasticism, was a Dutch artistic movement founded in 1917.
In a narrower sense, the term De Stijl is used to refer to a body of work from 1917 to 1931 founded in the Netherlands.

Geometric Abstraction

Geometric abstraction is a form of abstract art based on the use of geometric forms sometimes, though not always, placed in non-illusionistic space and combined into non-objective (non-representational) compositions.

Constructivism

Constructivism was an artistic and architectural philosophy that originated in Russia beginning in 1919, which was a rejection of the idea of autonomous art.
Constructivism had a great effect on modern art movements of the 20th century, influencing major trends such as Bauhaus and the De Stijl movement.

Neoplasticism

Neoplasticism is the belief that art should not be the reproduction of real objects, but the expression of the absolutes of life.

Grid

The grid method is an effective way to transfer and/or enlarge your original image onto canvas, ensuring correct proportions.

Foreground

The foreground is what looks like the closest thing to you. It's in front of everything else in the picture, and it has the most detail.

Background

the ground or parts, as of a scene, situated in the rear ( opposed to foreground).

Walter Gropius

United States architect (born in Germany) and founder of the Bauhaus school (1883-1969)

Russian Avant Garde

The Russian avant-garde is an umbrella term used to define the large, influential wave of modern art that flourished in Russia (or more accurately, the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union) approximately 1890 to 1930 - although some place its beginning as early as 1850 and its end as late as 1960.
The term covers many separate, but inextricably related, art movements that occurred at the time; namely Neo-primitivism, suprematism, constructivism, and futurism.

Photomontage

Photomontage is the process and result of making a composite photograph by cutting and joining a number of other photographs.

Surrealism

Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.
Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur

Freud

Sigmund Freud, born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (6 May 1856 - 23 September 1939), was an Austrian neurologist who founded the discipline of psychoanalysis.

Femme Fatale

A femme fatale is a mysterious and seductive woman whose charms ensnare her lovers in bonds of irresistible desire, often leading them into compromising, dangerous, and deadly situations.

Psychic automatism

"Pure psychic automatism" was how André Breton defined surrealism, and while the definition has proved capable of significant expansion, automatism remains of prime importance in the movement.

Dream interpretation

Dream interpretation is the process of assigning meaning to dreams.

Repression/subconscious (Freud)

Repression involves placing uncomfortable thoughts in relatively inaccessible areas of the subconscious mind.

Surrealist Manifesto 1924

Two Surrealist Manifestos were issued by the Surrealist movement, in 1924 and 1929.
The first was written by André Breton, the second was supervised by him.
Breton drafted a third Surrealist manifesto which was never issued.

Biomorphic or abstract surrealism (Early)

The Biomorphic abstraction of Surrealist and other artist like Miro inspired many artists to search for universal truths residing beneath the surface of things.
They focused primarily on nature, trying to pry loose the unseen pulse of the cosmos that coursed through the natural world.

Guernica

Guernica is a painting by Pablo Picasso.
It was created in response to the bombing of Guernica, Basque Country, by German and Italian warplanes at the behest of the Spanish Nationalist forces, on 26 April 1937, during the Spanish Civil War.

General Francisco Franco (Spanish Fascists)

General Francisco Franco is important because he became the dictator of Spain just prior to World War II and continued to rule there until his death in 1975.

Mexican Revolution

The Mexican Revolution was brought on by, among other factors, tremendous disagreement among the Mexican people over the dictatorship of President Porfirio Díaz, who, all told, stayed in office for thirty one years.

Porfirio Diaz

José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori (1830-1915) was a Mexican general, President, politician and dictator.
He ruled Mexico with an iron fist for 35 years, from 1876 to 1911.
His period of rule, referred to as the Porfiriato, was marked by great progress and modernization and the Mexican economy boomed.

Mexican Muralism

Mexican muralism is a Mexican art movement.
The most important period of this movement took place primarily from the 1920s to the 1960s, though it exerted an influence on later generations of Mexican artists.

Mexican Modernism

Mexican Modernism is known the world over for its beauty-vibrant colors, simple imagery and its bold socio-political commentary.
Responding to a gap between rich and poor, Spanish and indigenous-descent working class artists used their talents to foster mestizaje pride and socialist sentiment during and following the Mexican Revolution of 1910-1917.

Nationalism

Patriotic feeling, principles, or efforts.
An extreme form of this, esp. marked by a feeling of superiority over other countries.

Pre-Colombian

Preceding or belonging to the time before the arrival of Columbus in America

Indigenous

Originating or occurring naturally in a particular place; native: "the indigenous peoples of Siberia".

National Palace (Mexico)

National Palace, or Palacio Nacional in Spanish), is the seat of the federal executive in Mexico.
It is located on Mexico City's main square, the Plaza de la Constitución (El Zócalo).

Mexican Folk Art

Mexican handcrafts and folk art is a complex collection of items made with various materials and intended for utilitarian, decorative or other purposes.

Leon Trotsky

Leon Trotsky, born Lev Davidovich Bronshtein, was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and theorist, Soviet politician, and the founder and first leader of the Red Army

Dolores Olmedo

María de los Dolores Olmedo y Patiño Suarez (December 14, 1908 - July 26, 2002; Mexico City) was a Mexican businesswoman, philanthropist and musician, better known for her friendship with Mexican painters Frida Kahlo and her husband Diego Rivera; she appeared on some of his paintings.

Communism

Communism (Lat. communis - common, universal) is a revolutionary socialist movement to create a classless, moneyless, and stateless social order structured upon common ownership of the means of production, as well as a social, political and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of this social order.

Early American Modernism & Ashcan School

The Ashcan School also known as The Eight and the group called Ten American Painters created the core of the new American Modernism in the visual arts.
The Ashcan School was a group of New York City artists who sought to capture the feel of turn-of-the-20th-century New York City, through realistic portraits of everyday life.

Alfred Stieglitz

Alfred Stieglitz (January 1, 1864 - July 13, 1946) was an American photographer and modern art promoter who was instrumental over his fifty-year career in making photography an accepted art form.

Armory Show 1913

Many exhibitions have been held in the vast spaces of US National Guard armories, but the Armory Show refers to the 1913 International Exhibition of Modern Art that was organized by the Association of American Painters and Sculptors.

Harlem Renaissance

From 1910 to 1940, approximately 1.6 million African Americans fled the rural south for the Cities of the Industrial North, where they hoped to find jobs as well as justice and equality.
This migration led to a cultural flourishing devoted to self-discovering and to establishing a black identity.
Leading this movement in literature, music, theatre, and art, was Alain Locke, a philosopher at Howard University. Locke called for a distinctive style that evoked a black sensibility and perspective. He encouraged artists to depict a distinct African-American Curlture.

Regionalism

Regionalism is an American realist modern art movement that was popular during the 1930s. The artistic focus was from artists who shunned city life, and rapidly developing technological advances, to create scenes of rural life.

1929 Stock Market Crash

The Wall Street Crash of 1929 (October 1929), also known as the Great Crash, and the Stock Market Crash of 1929, was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its fallout.
The crash signaled the beginning of the 10-year Great Depression that affected all Western industrialized countries and did not end in the United States until 1947.

Social Realism

Social Realism, also known as Socio-Realism, is an artistic movement, expressed in the visual and other realist arts, which depicts social and racial injustice, economic hardship, through unvarnished pictures of life's struggles; often depicting working class activities as heroic.

Great Depression

1929, New York: The stock market crashed, unleashing the Great Depression.
If America had to contend with economic deprivation in the 1930's, the situation was even worse in Europe, where fascism added to the despair of the worldwide financial collapse.

The Sacco & Vanzetti Trial

Ferdinando Nicola Sacco (April 22, 1891 - August 23, 1927) and Bartolomeo Vanzetti (June 11, 1888 - August 23, 1927) were anarchists who were convicted of murdering two men during a 1920 armed robbery in South Braintree, Massachusetts, United States.
After a controversial trial and a series of appeals, the two Italian immigrants were executed on August 23, 1927.

Documentary Photography

Documentary photography usually refers to a popular form of photography used to chronicle significant and historical events.
It is typically covered in professional photojournalism, or real life reportage, but it may also be an amateur, artistic, or academic pursuit.

Degenerate Art & condemned movements

Degenerate art is the English translation of the German entartete Kunst, a term adopted by the Nazi regime in Germany to describe virtually all modern art.
Artistic movements condemned as degenerate: Bauhaus
Cubism
Dada
Expressionism
Fauvism
Impressionism
New Objectivity
Surrealism

Hitler (Views on Modern Art)

Adolf Hitler was an artist—a modern artist, at that—and Nazism was a movement shaped by his aesthetic sensibility.
These views have been in the air recently, and a trenchant scholarly exhibition at the Williams College Museum of Art, in Williamstown, Massachusetts—"Prelude to a Nightmare: Art, Politics, and Hitler's Early Years in Vienna 1906-1913"—advances them.

Abstract Expressionism

Abstract expressionism was an American post-World War II art movement. It was the first specifically American movement to achieve international influence and put New York City at the center of the western art world, a role formerly filled by Paris.

Influence of World War 2 in the U.S.

The US gave the Allies a fresh army.
Right after the US joined Russia dropped out.
This gave the Allies a dominant chance to win. Without the US, Russia could have stayed and finished off the Allies without the US.

Existentialism

Existentialism is a term applied to the work of a number of late 19th- and 20th-century philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences, shared the belief that philosophical thinking begins with the human subject—not merely the thinking subject, but the acting, feeling, living human individual.

New York after World War 2

The New York City that emerged from World War II was a dramatically different place than the city that had entered it four years before.
The change was in large part due to the war itself, which had finally lifted the city out the Depression, and ushered in an era of unparalleled prosperity.

Clement Greenberg

Clement Greenberg (January 16, 1909 - May 7, 1994) was an American essayist known mainly as an influential visual art critic closely associated with American Modern art of the mid-20th century.
In particular, he is best remembered for his promotion of the abstract expressionist movement and was among the first published critics to praise the work of painter Jackson Pollock.

Harold Rosenberg

Harold Rosenberg (February 2, 1906, New York City - July 11, 1978, New York City) was an American writer, educator, philosopher and art critic. He coined the term Action Painting in 1952 for what was later to be known as abstract expressionism.

Gesture

the use of such movements to express thought, emotion, etc.

Color Field

Color field painting is a tendency within Abstract Expressionism, distinct from gestural abstraction, or action painting.
It was pioneered in the late 1940s by Mark Rothko, Barnett Newman, and Clyfford Still, who were all independently searching for a style of abstraction that might provide a modern, mythic art and express a yearning for transcendence and the infinite.

Arshile Gorky (link between Surrealism & Abstract Expressionism)

Gorky joined the Surrealists at the end of their influence in the art world - the early 1940's.
After that, he and other artists who were to become the Abstract Expressionists, went on a more personal journey, which did not include the representational imagery of Dali and Magritte, but rather continued the more abstracted images of Surrealists Miro, Matta and Masson.

The American Action Painters (Rosenberg)

Harold Rosenberg's essay "The American Action Painters," first appeared in Art News in 1952, and was republished in his 1959 collection of essays, The Tradition of the New.
The essay interpreted new American art along broadly existential lines.

Modernist Painting (Greenberg)

Greenberg's first essay on modernism, clarifying many of the ideas implicit in "Avant-Garde and Kitsch", his groundbreaking essay written two decades earlier.

Figurative

Figurative art, sometimes written as figurativism, describes artwork—particularly paintings and sculptures—which are clearly derived from real object sources, and are therefore by definition representational.

Bay Area Figuration

The Bay Area Figurative Movement (also known as the Bay Area Figurative School, Bay Area Figurative Art, Bay Area Figuration, and similar variations) was a mid-20th Century art movement made up of a group of artists in the San Francisco Bay Area who abandoned working in the prevailing style of Abstract Expressionism in favor of a return to figuration in painting during the 1950s and onward into the 1960s.

"Raw Art" (Jean Dubuffet)

Definition of Raw Art, according to Jean Dubuffet:

"We mean by this term those works executed by people devoid of artistic culture, in which, therefore, imitation, unlike what takes place in intellectuals, plays little or no part, so that their authors draw all (subjects, choice of materials, means of transposition, rhythms, manners of writing, etc.) from their own collections and not clichés of classic or fashionable art. We thus witness the artistic operation in its pure, raw state, totally reinvented from all its phases by its author solely from his own impulses. An art therefore where uniquely the function of invention manifests itself, and not those - constant in Cultural Art - of the chameleon and monkey."

British Figuration

representing British figuratively as by emblem or allegory.

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